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Unit 7 - Africa in the Modern Age
 

Africa  - A Continent of 54 Nations

Geography

Topography

·         Atlas Mountains         ·  Ethiopian Highlands       ·  Great _______ Valley (What is important about the Great Rift Valley?)

 

 

 

River systems

·         _______     ·Congo·  Niger

Climatic Regions

·         Deserts     · Mediterranean    ·  Savannah     ·TropicalRain Forest

Resources

·         Gold   ·   _______    · Oil    · Cotton

 

Review of African History

Ø  Traditional Economic System: _______  Farming (Agriculture – Farming just enough for you and your family), trade, hunting

Ø  _______ - Everything in nature has a spirit, ancestor worship

Ø  Age of Exploration & Africa

Ø  Why?  

Ø 

 

Ø  Effects?

Ø  _______  Settlement in Africa

Imperialism

Motives: Raw Materials, _______  Markets, Nationalism - to show that they were indeed a world power - “the sun never sets on the  _______  Empire”

Imperialism


Effects

Ø  Schools, hospitals, communication and  _____________  systems (infrastructure) were built.

Ø  Nationalist movements -  _____________   movements seek independence from foreign control.

Ø  Generally, France was the major colonial power in Western Africa while Britain controlled much of  _____________   Africa.

 

North Africa in Modern Times

Ø  Associated with the Middle East because it is very much part of the  _____________  world.

Ø  Libya -Muanmar al – _____________  Leader of a military coup against the monarchy of Libya in 1969.

o   Terrorism

o   Pam Am flight 103 over Scotland

o   Because of his terrorist activity, Muammar Qaddafi has isolated  _____________  from the international community.

Ø  Algeria

o   French settlers were known as colons.

o   Over 1 million people died in Algeria’s war for independence.

 

 

Western Africa

Review of West African Kingdoms

Ø  Islamic influence

Ø  Arrival of the Europeans

Ø  French Imperialism

Nationalist Movements

Ø  Ghana -1957 - was the first  _____________  country for receive independence

o   A  _____________  was used to gain independence from Great Britain.

o   Kwame Nkrumah- Led Ghana to independence from Great Britain.

Ø  Guinea - Ahmed Sekou Toure - nationalist leader of Guinea.

Central Africa

Ø  Nigeria - Although it had little trouble gaining its independence from Great Britain, Nigeria endured a devastating  _____________  after the Ibo established Biafra.

o   Ken Saro-Wiwa - author hanged by Nigerian military authorities.

Ø  Ethnic tensions vs. Nationalism

Ø  Zaire - Mobuto Sese Seko - Anti _____________  dictator supported by the U.S. who ruled until 1997.

East Africa

Ø  Tanzania  -     Nationalist leader -     Jules Nyerere

Ø  Kenya - Mau Mau Movement

o   Jomo  _____________  - First President of Kenya.

Southern African Nations

Ø  Eritrea, Zimbabwe & Namibia all emerged since the late 1970’s

Ø  Angola & Mozambique - These countries were finally granted their independence from Portugal because there was a democratic revolution in Portugal.

Ø  Rhodesia

o   Named after  _____________  (British Imperialist – Diamond miner) Ian Smith controlled this white minority government.  It followed a system of Apartheid.

o   Zimbabwe- The people of Rhodesia revolted under the leadership of Robert Mugabe to form this nation.

South Africa

Review of South African history

Ø  Traditional African Tribes -  _____________ 

Ø  Dutch settlement in the 1600’s

Ø  British attracted to its resources

Ø  _____________  War

Ø  Independence

 

 

 

 

South Aftica - 1948 - Official policy of  _____________  .

Ø  African National Congress

Ø  Nelson Mandala - in jail for 27 years.  Leader of the African National Congress who was sentenced to life in prison for subversion.

Ø  Bishop Desmund Tutu - Nobel Prize Winner

Ø  World opposition to Apartheid

Ø  South Africa was  _____________   from the Olympic games.

Ø  South Africa was barred from the United Nations.

Ø  Economic Sanctions

Ø  Countries refused to trade with South Africa.

Ø  President F.W. _____________  - South African President who released Nelson Mandala from jail.

Ø  1992- Release of Nelson Mandela from prison after 27  years of confinement.

Ø  1994 - First free elections in South Africa

Ø  Nelson Mandala as President

Ø  One of his primary goals when he became President in 1994 was to reconcile racial and ethnic groups.

Zaire   -  Mobuto Sese Seko - Sought help from the European nations to improve

             Zaire’s struggling economy.

Ø  Democratic Republic of the  _____________   -

Ø  This country has been unstable since the 1990’s

Ø  Laurent Kabila

Uganda General Idi Amin

Ethnic Tensions

Ø  Rwanda & Burundi - Thousands have died as a result of the civil wars involving the  _____________  and the tutsis.

o   Millions of refugees fled to Zaire

o   Civil War, _____________ 

o   United Nations peace keeping mission.

o   Refugees – Someone who flees for safety.

Ø  Ethiopia - Drought caused massive starvation in the 1980’s.

Ø  Somalia -Thousands have died as a result of the civil wars.

                        Clans, _____________ 

o   International Relief Efforts

o   United Nations Involvement

o   Africa in the 1980’s & 90’s

o   Common problems include

            _____________ 

            challenges to democratic reform

            ethnic conflict.

 

 
 
 
 
 

Christianity. A History - 6. Dark Continents