Unit 7 - Africa in the Modern Age
Africa - A Continent of 54 Nations
· Atlas Mountains · Ethiopian Highlands · Great _______ Valley (What is important about the Great Rift Valley?)
· _______ ·Congo· Niger
· Deserts · Mediterranean · Savannah ·TropicalRain Forest
· Gold · _______ · Oil · Cotton
Review of African History
Ø Traditional Economic System: _______ Farming (Agriculture – Farming just enough for you and your family), trade, hunting
Ø _______ - Everything in nature has a spirit, ancestor worship
Ø Age of Exploration & Africa –
Ø _______ Settlement in Africa
Motives: Raw Materials, _______ Markets, Nationalism - to show that they were indeed a world power - “the sun never sets on the _______ Empire”
Ø Schools, hospitals, communication and _____________ systems (infrastructure) were built.
Ø Nationalist movements - _____________ movements seek independence from foreign control.
Ø Generally, France was the major colonial power in Western Africa while Britain controlled much of _____________ Africa.
North Africa in Modern Times
Ø Associated with the Middle East because it is very much part of the _____________ world.
Ø Libya -Muanmar al – _____________ Leader of a military coup against the monarchy of Libya in 1969.
o Pam Am flight 103 over Scotland
o Because of his terrorist activity, Muammar Qaddafi has isolated _____________ from the international community.
o French settlers were known as colons.
o Over 1 million people died in Algeria’s war for independence.
Review of West African Kingdoms
Ø Islamic influence
Ø Arrival of the Europeans
Ø French Imperialism
Ø Ghana -1957 - was the first _____________ country for receive independence
o A _____________ was used to gain independence from Great Britain.
o Kwame Nkrumah- Led Ghana to independence from Great Britain.
Ø Guinea - Ahmed Sekou Toure - nationalist leader of Guinea.
Ø Nigeria - Although it had little trouble gaining its independence from Great Britain, Nigeria endured a devastating _____________ after the Ibo established Biafra.
o Ken Saro-Wiwa - author hanged by Nigerian military authorities.
Ø Ethnic tensions vs. Nationalism
Ø Zaire - Mobuto Sese Seko - Anti _____________ dictator supported by the U.S. who ruled until 1997.
Ø Tanzania - Nationalist leader - Jules Nyerere
Ø Kenya - Mau Mau Movement
o Jomo _____________ - First President of Kenya.
Southern African Nations
Ø Eritrea, Zimbabwe & Namibia all emerged since the late 1970’s
Ø Angola & Mozambique - These countries were finally granted their independence from Portugal because there was a democratic revolution in Portugal.
Ø Rhodesia –
o Named after _____________ (British Imperialist – Diamond miner) Ian Smith controlled this white minority government. It followed a system of Apartheid.
o Zimbabwe- The people of Rhodesia revolted under the leadership of Robert Mugabe to form this nation.
Review of South African history
Ø Traditional African Tribes - _____________
Ø Dutch settlement in the 1600’s
Ø British attracted to its resources
Ø _____________ War
South Aftica - 1948 - Official policy of _____________ .
Ø African National Congress
Ø Nelson Mandala - in jail for 27 years. Leader of the African National Congress who was sentenced to life in prison for subversion.
Ø Bishop Desmund Tutu - Nobel Prize Winner
Ø World opposition to Apartheid
Ø South Africa was _____________ from the Olympic games.
Ø South Africa was barred from the United Nations.
Ø Economic Sanctions
Ø Countries refused to trade with South Africa.
Ø President F.W. _____________ - South African President who released Nelson Mandala from jail.
Ø 1992- Release of Nelson Mandela from prison after 27 years of confinement.
Ø 1994 - First free elections in South Africa
Ø Nelson Mandala as President
Ø One of his primary goals when he became President in 1994 was to reconcile racial and ethnic groups.
Zaire - Mobuto Sese Seko - Sought help from the European nations to improve
Zaire’s struggling economy.
Ø Democratic Republic of the _____________ -
Ø This country has been unstable since the 1990’s
Ø Laurent Kabila
Uganda General Idi Amin
Ø Rwanda & Burundi - Thousands have died as a result of the civil wars involving the _____________ and the tutsis.
o Millions of refugees fled to Zaire
o Civil War, _____________
o United Nations peace keeping mission.
o Refugees – Someone who flees for safety.
Ø Ethiopia - Drought caused massive starvation in the 1980’s.
Ø Somalia -Thousands have died as a result of the civil wars.
o International Relief Efforts
o United Nations Involvement
o Africa in the 1980’s & 90’s
o Common problems include
• challenges to democratic reform
• ethnic conflict.
Christianity. A History - 6. Dark Continents