Rise of 2 “CLASSIC” Civilizations Ancient Greece & Ancient Rome
Uneven coastline creates natural harbors which is good for fishing and trade
Greeks traded throughout the Mediterranean region.
Ancient Greece -Golden Age of Athens Hellenistic Age
---------460 BCE---------------------------429 BCE---------------323 BCE--------
· Greece is composed of islands and peninsulas located in the Mediterranean Sea.
· City States -Each city-state, or polis was different, having its own form of government, laws, and army.
· Sparta a rival city state with a totalitarian gov’t
· Society revolved around physical training, loyalty, obedience and the military.
Athens (460 - 430 B.C.)
· Athens leading Greek city-state & was democratic.
· Athens was a society, which encouraged free expression, new ideas, and change.
· Golden Age of Athens - Any “golden age” refers to a period of political stability, economic prosperity and cultural achievements.
· Age of Pericles (460 - 429 B.C.) - very capable ruler during “golden age”
· Created public works projects to put people to work
· Greek sculpture emphasized beauty and perfection.
· Well balanced
· Perfect human form
· The Discus Thrower.
· Greek Architecture
· White marble Columns
· The Greek Column
· Socrates’ teachings:
o Know Thyself
o To Question
· The spirit of questioning had a huge impact on the Renaissance period 2,000 years later in the 1400’s.
Plato - Author of the Republic, in which he attacked democracy and suggested philosophers govern the state.
Aristotle - Student of Plato. Aristotle’s philosophical and scientific works influenced thinking in Europe for 2000 years.
Pythagoras - developed a theorem pertaining to right triangles.
Euclid - created a branch of geometry based on deductive reasoning.
· Hippocrates is called the “father of modern medicine”.
· Doctors today still adhere to the ethical standards of the Hippocratic Oath
· Archimedes, a physicist, discovered the uses of the lever and pulley.
Alexander the Great
· Alexander’s Empire - His rule marked a blending of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures known as the Hellenistic Period.
· Territory included Greece, Egypt, Persia and the Indus River Valley
· Hellenistic Age - Blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian and Indian ways.