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Rise of 2 “CLASSIC” Civilizations Ancient Greece & Ancient Rome

 

 

 Ancient Greece

 

 

Uneven coastline creates natural harbors which is good for fishing and trade

Greeks traded throughout the Mediterranean region.

 

 

Map Ancient Greece

 

 

Map Quiz

 

 

 

 

Ancient Greece    -Golden Age of Athens                     Hellenistic Age

---------460 BCE---------------------------429 BCE---------------323 BCE--------

 

Ancient Greece

·        Greece is composed of islands and peninsulas located in the Mediterranean Sea.

·        City States -Each city-state, or polis was different, having its own form of government, laws, and army.

 

Sparta

·        Sparta a rival city state with a totalitarian gov’t

 

·        Society revolved around physical training, loyalty, obedience and the military.

 

Athens  (460 - 430 B.C.)

·        Athens leading Greek city-state  & was democratic.

 

 

 

·        Athens was a society, which encouraged free expression, new ideas, and change.

·        Golden Age of Athens - Any “golden age” refers to a period of political stability, economic prosperity and cultural achievements.

 

·        Age of Pericles (460 - 429 B.C.) - very capable ruler during “golden age”

·        Created public works projects to put people to work

 

Greek Sculpture

 

 

·        Greek sculpture emphasized beauty and perfection.

·        Well balanced

·        Perfect human form

·        The Discus Thrower.

 

·        Greek Architecture
Parthenon

·        Symmetry

·        White marble Columns 

·        The Greek Column

o   Doric

o   Ionic

o   Corinthian

 

Greek Philosophers

Socrates

·        Socrates’ teachings:

o   Know Thyself

o   To Question

·        The spirit of questioning had a huge impact on the Renaissance period 2,000 years later in the 1400’s.

 

Plato - Author of the Republic, in which he attacked democracy and suggested philosophers govern the state.

 

Aristotle - Student of Plato. Aristotle’s philosophical and scientific works influenced thinking in Europe for 2000 years.

Mathematics

 

Pythagoras - developed a theorem pertaining to right triangles.

 

Euclid - created a branch of geometry based on deductive reasoning.

 

Science

·        Hippocrates is called the “father of modern medicine”.

·        Doctors today still adhere to the ethical standards of the Hippocratic Oath

·        Science

·        Archimedes, a physicist, discovered the uses of the lever and pulley.

 

Alexander the Great

 

·        Alexander’s Empire - His rule marked a blending of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures known as the Hellenistic Period.

·        Territory included Greece, Egypt, Persia and the Indus River Valley

·        Hellenistic Age - Blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian and Indian ways.