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The Early Republic
 
 

George Washington - The first President of the United States

April 30, 1789, George Washington is inaugurated (takes the oath of office)

 
 
 
 
                             
 
Washington’s Government
  • Washington knew that during his first term of office, he and his officials were establishing precedents (an

              act or statement that becomes an example, rule, or tradition to be followed) for how to govern.

  • In 1792, Washington won unanimous reelection.  His second term was his last term.  By President

              Washington choosing to only serve 2 terms, he had set another precedent for future presidents.  FDR was the

              only person to run for reelection for more than two terms.  FDR was elected President four times, he died

              during his 4th term.  In 1951, the 22nd amendment was passed setting into law a two term limit for the

              Presidency.  Other precedents set by George Washington include but are not limited to appointed a cabinet

             (set of advisors), a foreign policy of neutrality.

 


John Adams - Vice President

 

 

 


 

The President's Cabinet - Even though not directly spelled out in the Constitution (part of the "Unwritten Constitution"),  George Washington created a cabinet.

 

 

•        The Cabinet is a group of advisors who lead federal agencies and advise the President

           on important issues.

•        President George Washington set a precedent for all future presidents by creating a cabinet

          of advisors.

 

Washington’s Cabinet

•        Edmund Randolph Attorney General

•        Henry Knox - Secretary of War. 

•        Thomas Jefferson - Secretary of State

•        Alexander Hamilton -Secretary of the Treasury.

 


Washington's Domestic Policy

(issues dealing with matters inside the U.S.)

 

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

A. Full funding of the national debt

B. Collection of an excise tax on whiskey

C. Creation of a national bank

  •  As Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton was most noted for devising a plan to
  •                pay off the nation’s debts.

    • One major reason that Alexander Hamilton proposed a national bank was to improve the

                   economic position of the United States government

     

    The passage of a new excise tax on Whiskey during Washington’s administration led to the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania.

    Tax Collector in Peril

    A tax collector being tarred and feathered
     
     
     
    One of the roles of the President is the Commander in Chief.  Here is President Washington leading troops during the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794.
     

     

    Washington's Foreign Policy

    (Foreign policy is a presidents dealing with other countries)

     

    Note that Great Britain and France were at war in the early 1790's.  Even though France had the the American Revolutionaries, Washington felt strongly that the U.S. should not get involved in the conflict because we were such a young nation that needed to build its strength and power.

     

    The fact that the Atlantic Ocean separates the U.S from Europe helped us remain neutral.

     

    The Proclamation of Neutrality

     

    The Proclamation of Neutrality

     

     

    The Proclamation of Neutrality

     

    By THE PRESIDENT of the UNITED STATES of America,

     

    A PROCLAMATION

     


    "Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain, and the United Netherlands, of the one part, and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the United States require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent Powers; ……"

     

    GEORGE WASHINGTON

    April 22, 1793

     

     

    • President George Washington reacted to the conflict

                   between France and England in 1793 declaring the

                   neutrality of the U.S.

    • President George Washington’s principal reason for

                   issuing the Proclamation of Neutrality (1793) was to

                    safeguard the newly won independence.

    • President George Washington pursued a foreign policy

                   of neutrality during his administration primarily

                   because he believed that  the United States needed

                   time to gain economic and military strength.

     

     

     

     

     

    President Washington's  Farewell Address, 1796

    ~

    "… It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim [principle] no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them.… "

     

    • In his Farewell Address, President George Washington warned against establishing alliances with

                   European countries because he was concerned primarily about  United States involvement in foreign wars

                   a war was going on in Europe.

    • He believed that the United States would risk its security by involvement in European affairs. 

                   We were just a new nation and needed time to develop.

    • The United States was able to follow this advice from President Washington for several

                  decades primarily because of geographic isolation from Europe.


    In 1797, Washington returns to his home at Mt. Vernon to go back to his life as a farmer.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

    1.      National nominating conventions

    2.      Political parties

    3.      Cabinet positions

    4.      Congressional committees

    5.      Judicial review

     
    • The necessary and proper clause, the amendment process, and the unwritten constitution are

                   all evidence that our constitutional system of government provides for flexibility.

     

     

     


     

     

     

    Federalists vs.  Anti Federalists

    The nation's leaders split over ideology

     

    • Conflicts between Jeffersonians and Hamiltonians during President George Washington’s first administration led

                     directly to the  start of the first political parties

     

    • One reason James Madison and Thomas Jefferson objected to Alexander Hamilton’s

                       financial policies was that they believed  the establishment of a national bank was unconstitutional

                      because authority to create a national bank was not expressly written into the U.S. Constitution.


    John Adams becomes the 2nd President of the U.S.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    In 1798, the Federalist-controlled Congress passed a series of laws which, on the surface, were designed to control the activities of foreigners in the United States during a time of impending war. Beneath the surface, however, the real intent of these laws was to destroy Jeffersonian Republicanism. The laws, known collectively as the "Alien and Sedition Acts," included:

     

    The Naturalization Act, which extended the residency period from 5 to 14 years for those aliens seeking citizenship; this law was aimed at Irish and French immigrants who were often active in Republican politics

     

    The Alien Act, which allowed the expulsion of aliens deemed dangerous during peacetime

     

    The Alien Enemies Act, which allowed the expulsion or imprisonment of aliens deemed dangerous during wartime. This was never enforced, but it did prompt numerous Frenchmen to return home

     

    The Sedition Act, which provided for fines or imprisonment for individuals who criticized the government, Congress, or president in speech or print.


    These are the first cracks in the union that eventually lead to the U.S. Civil War sixty years later. The states' rights theory of government, a theory that opened the way for the nullification controversy (of the 1830's) and ultimately for secession (South Carolina, 1861).
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

     

     

     

    Federalists                                            vs.                                Anti Federalists

                              • Alien and Sedition Acts                                                  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

     

    These pieces of legislation reflected the conflict between  states’ rights and federal supremacy


    Marbury  v. Madison - Juducial Review    

     

                  

     
     
    • Supreme Court decisions under Chief Justice John Marshall helped the      federal government increase its power at the expense of the states.

     
    Thomas Jefferson becomes the 3rd President of the United States in 1800
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    While Thomas Jefferson was usually a "strict constuctionist," (Strict Constructionists wanted a strict adhearance to the delegated (listed or enumerated) powers granted to the federal government by the Constitution and none others, most Anti Federalists were strict constructionists), when he had the opportunity to double the size of the United States with the Louisiana Purchase, he ultimately did it.  Napoleon was fighting many wars and needed to raise money.  The deal was settled for $15 million.
     
    A loose interpretation of the Constitution was applied when Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory.
     
     
     
    • Alexander Hamilton’s proposal to create a national bank and Thomas Jefferson’s proposalto purchase the

                  Louisiana Territory were criticized because both actions would required a loose interpretation of the

                  Constitution

    • In the early 1800’s, the need for a water route to help farmers ship their products to market was one reason

                  for the Louisiana Purchase.  The Mississippi River was important to the United States because it served as

                  a major highway for trade.

    • The Louisiana Purchase was important to the United States because it secured control of the Mississippi  

                   River and provided farmers and merchants from the Ohio River Valley an outlet to the Gulf of Mexico

                   Acquiring New Orleans as part of the Louisiana Purchase was  considered important to the development

                   of the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys because the city served as a port for American agricultural goods


    Lewis and Clark expedition

    good clip

     

     

    Jefferson’s Embargo Act (1807)

     

     

    ·       In 1803, the same year that the U.S. bought the Louisiana Purchase, England and France went to war again. This war lasted for years and caused a great deal of trouble for the United States.

     

    ·       Both France and England wanted to prevent ships from carrying supplies to the other. United States ships were stopped and searched. The English also impressed our sailors. That means they claimed the sailors were English deserters. These sailors were then taken off our ships and forced to fight in the British navy. This was unfair to our seamen and an insult to the United States. The British had no right to board our ships without permission from our government. Many people in the U.S. felt that war should be declared against England.

     

    ·       Jefferson did not want war. He had a simple solution to the problem of impressment. He believed one way to stay out of war was to keep our ships off the ocean. The British could not seize our sailors if those sailors were safely home in port.

     

    ·       In 1807 Jefferson helped pass a law that declared an embargo on trade with foreign countries. American ships were banned from sailing to any foreign port. Ships of other nations were not allowed to enter American ports. This law was called the Embargo Act. Jefferson hoped that the lack of American supplies might force England and France to make peace. At the least, he hoped that they might agree to stop interfering with American ships.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    The War of 1812 
     

     The War of 1812 broke out for a variety of reasons, including Britain’s seizure of American ships, impressment of American sailors into the British navy and restriction of trade between the United States and France.

     

    In June 1812 James Madison became the first U.S. president to ask Congress to declare war. Fought in three theaters, the conflict ended with the Treaty of Ghent in 1815. In one of its most memorable episodes, as British troops entered the capital to burn the White House and other government buildings, first lady Dolley Madison refused to evacuate the White House until a portrait of George Washington was rescued.

     

    The lyrics of “The Star-Spangled Banner,” the U.S. national anthem, are another important legacy of the War of 1812. They were penned by the amateur poet Francis Scott Key after he watched American forces withstand the British siege of Fort McHenry.

     
     
      

     Vocabulary

    Inauguration - official swearing-in ceremony

    Cabinet -  a team of advisors to lead the federal

    Precedent - an act or statement that becomes an example, rule, or tradition to be followed.

    Unwritten Constitution  - practices that were not directly spelled out in the Constitution but have become part of our political traditions.

    Excise Tax - A tax on a specific good (examples: today there are special taxes on gasoline and cigarettes, back then there was an excise tax on Whiskey)

    Loose Interpretation of the Constituion  - Interpreting the constitution in very broad terms usually applying the elactice clause (Article 1, Section 8, clause 18, to do what is "necessary and proper").  Looking at the Constitution in this way would allow federal officials a wide range of power.

     

     

     

     



    Regents questions for President Washington

     

     

    1. The establishment of the president’s cabinet as part of the United States government was the result of a (#26-Au11)

    (1) law passed by Congress

    (2) constitutional amendment

    (3) precedent started by George Washington

    (4) ruling of the United States Supreme Court

     

    Base your answer to question 2 on the quotation below

    … It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim [principle] no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let

    those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them.… — President George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796

     

    2. President Washington was offering this advice because he believed  (#9-Ja11)

    (1) the destiny of the United States was to rule other countries

    (2) the United States should seek alliances with other nations

    (3) alliances could draw the United States into wars

    (4) the United States should break its agreements with France

     

    3. Which heading best completes the partial outline below?  (#12-Ja11)

    I. _______________________________

    A. Creation of a national bank

    B. Full funding of the national debt

    C. Collection of an excise tax on whiskey

    (1) The Spoils System

    (2) The American System

    (3) Hamilton’s Financial Plan

    (4) Constitutional Amendments

     

    4. President George Washington set a precedent for all future presidents by (#12-Aug. ’10)

    a. appointing a career soldier to be Secretary of War

    b. choosing a friend to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

    c. campaigning actively for the office

    d. creating a cabinet of advisors

     

     

    5.. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? (#7-June ’10)

    I. __________________________

    1.      National nominating conventions

    2.      Political parties

    3.      Congressional committees

    a. Articles of Confederation

    b. Constitutional Compromises

    c. Jeffersonian Democracy

    d. Unwritten Constitution

     

    6. A major purpose of the president’s cabinet is to (#10.-June ’10)

    a. offer advice on important issues

    b. nominate ambassadors

    c. conduct impeachment trials

    d. regulate the amount of money in circulation

     

    7. A major purpose of the president’s cabinet is to #22?-June ’10)

    a. offer advice on important issues

    b. nominate ambassadors

    c. conduct impeachment trials

    d. regulate the amount of money in circulation

     

     

    8. President George Washington pursued a foreign policy of neutrality during his administration primarily because he believed that  (#12-Ju09)

    (1) the United States needed time to gain economic and military strength

    (2) treaties were prohibited by the Constitution

    (3) the United States should not expand by force

    (4) alliances should be established with both France and England

     

     

    9.. In his Farewell Address, President George Washington warned against establishing alliances with European countries because he was concerned primarily about  (#10-Ja09)

    (1) restrictions on trade with Latin America

    (2) French colonization of the Caribbean

    (3) United States involvement in foreign wars

    (4) protection of the western frontier

     

    10. The creation of the presidential cabinet and political parties are examples of (#6-Au08)

    (1) the unwritten constitution

    (2) separation of powers

    (3) the elastic clause

    (4) judicial review

     

    11.  “. . . I know too that it is a maxim [rule] with us, and I think it a wise one, not to entangle ourselves with the affairs of Europe. . . .” — Thomas Jefferson, December 21, 1787, Jan. ’08   Library of Congress

    Which document most clearly reflects the advice given in this statement?

    a. Albany Plan of Union

    b. Articles of Confederation

    c. Bill of Rights

    d. Washington’s Farewell Address

     

    12. In his Farewell Address, President George Washington advised the nation to avoid permanent alliances because he believed that the United States (#12-Ja07)

    (1) would risk its security by involvement in European affairs

    (2) had no need for the products or markets of Europe

    (3) possessed military power superior to any European nation

    (4) needed to limit European immigration

     

    13. Which action during Washington’s administration led to the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania? (#6-Ja06)

    (1) passage of a new excise tax

    (2) establishment of a presidential cabinet

    (3) creation of the Bank of the United States

    (4) ban on slavery in the Northwest Territory

     

    “ ’Tis [It is] our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world. . . .” — President George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796

     

    14. The United States was able to follow this advice from President Washington for several decades primarily because of (#7-Au05)

    (1) industrial and agricultural self-sufficiency

    (2) strong support from other Western Hemisphere nations

    (3) geographic isolation from Europe

    (4) peaceful relations between the European powers

     

     

     

    15. President George Washington’s principal reason for issuing the Proclamation of Neutrality (1793) was to (#11-Ju05)

    (1) repay France for help in the Revolutionary War

    (2) protect United States interests in the Caribbean area

    (3) safeguard the newly won independence

    (4) punish the British for failing to withdraw from American territory

     

     

    16. How did President George Washington react to the conflict between France and England in 1793? (#8-Ja05)

    (1) He used the opportunity to begin the war for American independence.

    (2) He declared the neutrality of the United States.

    (3) He aided the French because they had supported the American Revolution.

    (4) He negotiated a peace settlement between the warring nations.

     

    17.  Antifederalist objections to the ratification of the Constitution led to the (#6-Aug. ’04)

    a. addition of a Bill of Rights

    b. seven-year delay in the ratification of the Constitution

    c. rewriting of major parts of the Constitution

    d. elimination of states’ rights

     

     

    18. In 1788 and 1789, a major controversy between the Federalists and the Antifederalists      focused on  (#20-Aug. ’04)

    a. expansion of slavery into the territories

    b. the wisdom of creating a two-house legislature

    c. division of power among different levels of government

    d. the issue of allowing women the right to vote

        

     

    19. Conflicts between Jeffersonians and Hamiltonians during President George Washington’s

       first administration led directly to the (#7.-June ’04 )

    a. end of the Era of Good Feelings

    b. decision to replace the Articles of Confederation

    c. addition of the elastic clause to the Constitution

    d. start of the first political parties

     

     

     

     

    20. The unwritten constitution is best defined as the (#4-Ja 04)

    (1) amendments to the United States Constitution

    (2) powers that the Constitution reserves for the states

    (3) powers that the Constitution denies to Congress and to the states

    (4) practices of the government that are based on custom and tradition

     

    21. The Louisiana Purchase initially presented a dilemma for President Thomas Jefferson because he believed it would  (#10-Ja10)

    (1) lead to war with Great Britain

    (2) bankrupt the new nation

    (3) force Native American Indians off their lands

    (4) violate his strict constructionist view of the Constitution

     

    22. The Louisiana Purchase initially presented a dilemma for President Thomas Jefferson because he believed it would (#10-Aug. ’09)

    a. lead to war with Great Britain

    b. bankrupt the new nation

    c. force Native American Indians off their lands

    d. violate his strict constructionist view of the Constitution

     

    “Presidential Candidates Skip Campaigning in Low-Population States”

    “Winner Of Popular Vote Loses Election”

    23. These headlines refer to controversial issues most directly related to (June ’09)

    a. judicial review        c. the electoral college

    b. impeachment          d. checks and balances 

     

    24. The Louisiana Purchase was important to the United States because it (#2-Jan. ’09)

    a. expanded the nation’s boundary to the Pacific Ocean

    b. removed the Spanish from North America

    c. closed the western territories to slavery

    d. secured control of the Mississippi River

     

    25. A geographic and economic motivation for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) was the desire to  (#9-Au08)

    (1) annex California

    (2) secure land for the Erie Canal

    (3) control the port of New Orleans

    (4) own all of the Great Lakes

     

    26. In the early 1800s, the Mississippi River was important to the United States because it   (#7-Ju08)

    (1) served as a major highway for trade

    (2) led to wars between Great Britain and Spain

    (3) divided the Indian territories from the United States

    (4) served as a border between the United States and Mexico

     

    27. “. . . I know too that it is a maxim [rule] with us, and I think it a wise one, not to entangle ourselves with the affairs of Europe. . . .” — Thomas Jefferson, December 21, 1787, (9-Jan. ’08)

    Library of Congress

    Which document most clearly reflects the advice given in this statement?

    a. Albany Plan of Union

    b. Articles of Confederation

    c. Bill of Rights

    d. Washington’s Farewell Address

     

     28. A major foreign policy success of President Thomas Jefferson’s administration was the (#8-Au06)

    (1) purchase of the Louisiana Territory

    (2) support for the Alien and Sedition Acts

    (3) victory in the war of 1812

    (4) passage of the Embargo Act

     

    29. The Louisiana Purchase (1803) was a foreign policy success for the United States primarily because it (#11-Ju10)

    (1) secured full control of Florida from Spain

    (2) ended French control of the Mississippi River

    (3) ended British occupation of forts on American soil

    (4) eliminated Russian influence in North America

     

    30. As a strict constructionist, President Thomas Jefferson questioned the constitutional right to  (#12-Ju 03)

    (1) receive diplomats from foreign nations

    (2) purchase the Louisiana Territory

    (3) grant pardons to convicted criminals

    (4) veto legislation passed by Congress

     

    31. On what grounds would strict constructionists of the United States Constitution have questioned

    the purchase of the Louisiana Territory? (#12-Au 03)

    (1) It violated the guarantee of states’ rights.

    (2) The president was not specifically given the power to purchase new land.

    (3) Congress was opposed to expansion west of the Mississippi River.

    (4) The Constitution applied only to the original thirteen states.

     

    32. Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality (1793), Jefferson’s Embargo Act (1807), and the Monroe

    Doctrine (1823) were all efforts to  (#13-Ju07)

    (1) avoid political conflicts with European nations

    (2) directly support European revolutions

    (3) aid Great Britain in its war against France

    (4) promote military alliances

     

    33.  A major reason President Thomas Jefferson authorized the Lewis and Clark expedition was to (#13-Au10)

    (1) claim California for the United States

    (2) explore a route to the Pacific Ocean

    (3) remove British outposts from United States land

    (4) establish settlements in the Southwest

     

    34. One reason President Thomas Jefferson supported the Louisiana Purchase was that he wanted to  (#13-Ja11)

    (1) gain full control of the Mississippi River

    (2) establish a base for controlling the Caribbean

    (3) maintain control of the slave trade

    (4) acquire an established manufacturing region

     

    35. The Louisiana Purchase (1803) was a foreign policy success for the United States primarily because it (#11- June 10)

    (1) secured full control of Florida from Spain

    (2) ended French control of the Mississippi River

    (3) ended British occupation of forts on American soil

    (4) eliminated Russian influence in North

     

     “. . . I know too that it is a maxim [rule] with us, and I think it a wise one, not to entangle ourselves with the affairs of Europe. . . .”  — Thomas Jefferson, December 21, 1787, Jan. ’08 Library of Congress

    36. Which document most clearly reflects the advice given in this statement?

    a. Albany Plan of Union

    b. Articles of Confederation

    c. Bill of Rights

    d. Washington’s Farewell Address