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Tudor Monarchs

The Tudor dynasty ruled England from 1485 to 1603.  

 

Henry VII - ruled 1485 to 1509

 


King Henry VIII

 

Reign 1509 –1547

Coronation 24 June 1509

Predecessor Henry VII

Successor Edward VI

 

Spouse

Catherine of Aragon (annulled)

Anne Boleyn (beheaded)

Jane Seymour (widower)

Anne of Cleves (annulled)

Catherine Howard (beheaded)

Catherine Parr (widow)

 

Died 1547 (aged 55)

  

King Henry VIII, who was once given the title "Defender of the Faith" by the Pope in 1521, later broke with the Catholic Church in 1534.  With the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII created the Church of England.

 


Edward VI - ruled 1547 to 1553

 

Jane I -ruled 1553

 

Mary I -ruled 1553 to 1558

Queen Mary

The reign of Queen Mary (1553-58) was marked by religious upheaval and dissension. She had been raised as a Catholic, and she sought to undo the Protestant changes of the past several years. Protestants were suppressed and burned in the hundreds, an act which earned Mary the charming nickname "Bloody Mary".

 


Elizabeth I

 

Queen of England and Ireland

 

Reign: 1558 –1603

Coronation: 15 January 1559

Predecessor Mary I

Successor James I

 

"House of Tudor"

Father Henry VIII

Mother Anne Boleyn

Died 1603 (aged 69)

 

Elizabeth has traditionally been seen as one of England's greatest monarchs - if not in fact the greatest.  Her reign witnessed widespread increase in literacy and great achievements in the arts (Shakespeare) as well as expansion overseas (Drake, Ralegh) and military victory over threatened invasion (Spanish Armada).  Elizabeth herself was regarded as wise and just, able to choose good advisers yet not be dominated by them and to handle Parliament without despotism; a ruler supremely skilled at compromise in both the religious and political spheres. 

 

James I from Scotland became the King of England after Elizabeth I died.

This was the end of the Tudor Dynasty.

Since Elizabeth did not have any children, her cousin was invited to assume the throne.


The House of Stuart

 

 

 

 

King James I

 

 

  • A strict Scots Calvinist

  • Believer in the Divine Right of Kings

  • James' relationship with Parliament was poor

 

  • James failed to consult parliament over taxes.

 

  • James religious policies were opposed by both

            Catholics and Protestants alike.

  • King James Bible

 

  • James I, a pacifist, prevented both England and

            Scotland  (he was also King of Scotland) from

            becoming involved in any European wars.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Essential Questions (From NYS Curriculum)

  • In what ways did nationalism support centralized governments headed by powerful rulers?

  • What forces opposed absolute monarchies?

 


 

 

 

 

 

 


 

  


King Charles I

 

 

Charles I (1625 - 1646) believed in divine right of kings, just as his father King James I did.

  • Parliament opposed his tax measures
  • Parliament wanted to be in charge of the army

  • Conflicts between King Charles I and Parliament increased

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=WesxJw7OpOw#t=342s

 

The Irish Rebellion of 1641

 This rebellion, although intended to be bloodless, was marked by massacres of English and Scottish Protestant settlers by Irish and Highland Scot Catholics in Ireland. These settlers had settled on land seized from former, native Catholic owners to make way for the non-native Protestants.

 

 

 

The Long Parliament- Session of the English Parliament summoned in November 1640 by Charles I, so named to distinguish it from the Short Parliament of April – May 1640. Charles called the session to raise the money needed for his war against the Scots. Resistant to Charles's demands, the Parliament caused the king's advisers to resign and passed an act forbidding its own dissolution without its members' consent.

 

Charles led troops into House of Commons to arrest opponents.

 

The English Civil War broke out in 1642

 

 

 

  • Cavaliers – called royalists, supported the king

  • Roundheads – supported Parliament (puritans)

  • Oliver Cromwell, leader of the puritans – organized New Model Army and defeated Charles I

 

 

  • After the king's defeat (1646), the army, exercised political power and in 1648 expelled all but 60

           members of the Long Parliament. The remaining group, called the Rump, brought Charles to trial

           for treason and execution (1649);

 

  • Rump Parliament – abolished monarchy and House of Lords, proclaimed England a

            commonwealth,

 

Irish were treated brutally by England in the 1640's

Cromwell's hostility to the Irish was religious as well as political. He was passionately opposed to the Roman Catholic Church, which he saw as denying the primacy of the Bible in favour of papal and clerical authority, and which he blamed for suspected tyranny and persecution of Protestants in Europe. Cromwell's association of Catholicism with persecution was deepened with the Irish Rebellion of 1641.  These factors contributed to the brutality of the Cromwell military campaign in Ireland in 1649.

 

Cromwell’s Commonwealth (1653-1659) - Cromwell as Lord Protector

  • Raised money from taxes and land sales

  • Army was disciplined and powerful

  • Enemies had no organized army

  • Encouraged trade and manufacturing

 

Cromwell quarreled with Parliament, then dissolved it in 1653

 

 


The Restoration and the Glorious Revolution

 

 

 

 

 

 

~

 

 

 

English Bill of Rights

 

 


The Beginnings of the British Empire

  • Explorers and sea dogs – English sea captains who challenged the Portuguese and Spanish  

            monopolies of sea trade, plundered foreign ships, helped defeat Spanish Armada

  • The British in India – British East India Company
  • The British in Americas – Jamestown and Plymouth
  • Mercantilism and the British colonies – discouraged colonial manufacturing and forced colonists

           to sell certain products only to Britain

 

Jun 07 DBQ Documents 4, 5 & 6


King James I

Reigned 1603-1625

(Also King James VI of Scotland, 1567-1625

 

 

King Charles I

Reigned 1625-1649; beheaded

 

 

King Charles II

Reigned 1660-1685

 

 

King James II

(Also King James VII of Scotland)

Reigned 1685-1688; deposed

 

 

Queen Mary II and King William III

Mary II reigned 1689-1694

William III reigned 1689-1702

 

 

Queen Anne

Reigned 1702-1714


 

 Practice Regents questions

 

18. Which statement best describes a result of the Glorious Revolution in England

    1688)?Aug. ’04

(1) England formed an alliance with France.

(2) The power of the monarchy was increased.

(3) Principles of limited government were strengthened.

(4) England lost its colonial possessions.

 

18. One way in which the Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, and the Glorious

      Revolution are similar is that each Aug. ’05

(1) strengthened the power of the pope

(2) led to the exploration of Africa

(3) limited the power of the English monarchy

(4) settled religious conflicts

 

18. The Magna Carta can be described as a June ’05

(1) journal about English feudal society

(2) list of feudal rights that limited the power of the English monarchy

(3) census of all tax-paying nobility in feudal England

(4) statement of grievances of the middle class in England

 

19. Many European monarchs of the 1600s maintained that they should have absolute

     power to rule because they Jan. ’05

(1) needed to defend their nations against threats from the Western Hemisphere

(2) thought that all people should have the right to a good ruler

(3) had been given their power to govern from God

(4) thought that communism was the superior political system

 

22 The Glorious Revolution in England resulted in the Jan. ’03

(1) strengthening of divine right rule

(2) formation of a limited monarchy

(3) weakening of Parliament’s power of the purse

(4) end of civil liberties guaranteed by the Petition of Right

 

17. One way Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII were similar is that they all

      were  June ’03

(1) Latin American revolutionary leaders

(2) Reformation leaders

(3) Impressionist painters

(4) divine right monarchs

 

17. In England, the Magna Carta, the Puritan Revolution, the Glorious Revolution, and

      the English Bill of Rights led to the development of Jan. ’05

(1) a dictatorship

(2) an absolute monarchy

(3) a theocracy

(4) a limited monarchy


The tradition of sharing political power and natural law had its roots in Greek and Roman practice and was expressed in documents that limited royal power such as the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights.

 

Essential Questions:

- How did religious reform lead to conflict? To what extent were these conflicts resolved?

 

- What role did Elizabeth I play in the English Reformation?

 

- What forces led to the rise of nation states?

 

- In what ways did nationalism support centralized governments headed bypowerful rulers?

 

- What forces opposed absolute monarchies?

 

- How did nationalism lead to conflict between secular and ecclesiastical powers?

 

- What impact did the Puritan Revolution have on the Enlightenment and subsequent political events in Europe

   and the Americas?

 

Suggested Documents:Exerpts from Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice;

Martin Luther, The Ninty-five Theses, Loyola, Spiritual Exercise

Suggested Documents: Thomas Hobbes, The Leviathan; Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince; James I, Justification of Absolute Monarchy; John Locke, Two Treatises of Government; and the English Bill of Rights