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Industrialization -

The Industrial Revolution




A change in how things are produced.  Instead of goods being made in the home, goods are now make in factories.


Technology, and an abundance of natural resources, was the driving forces behind the Industrial Revolution in the United States . The telegraph, railroads, the telephone, and ultimately the use of electricity led to the shift from an agrarian to an industrial America .

Standard Oil Refinery in California
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Use of Natural Resources:
    • Iron
    • Coal
    • Oil
  • Transcontinental Railroad
  • Inventors and their Inventions:
    • Samuel F. B. Morse
    • Henry Bessemer
    • Alexander Graham Bell
    • Thomas Alva Edison

From 1870 to 1900, the United States became the world's foremost industrial nation. It emerged as the leader in meatpacking, in production of timber and steel, and in the mining of coal, iron, gold, and silver. Overall, the nation experienced a stunning explosion in the scale of industry and in the pace of production. By the turn of the century, industrialization had transformed commerce, business organization, the environment, the workplace, the home, and everyday life.

Many factors fueled industrial growth in the late 19th century: abundant resources, new technology, cheap energy, fast transport, and the availability of capital and labor. Mines, forests, and livestock in the west provided raw materials for major industries, as did iron in Ohio and oil in Pennsylvania. Railroad expansion enabled businesses to move raw materials to factories and to send products to urban markets. A steady stream of immigrants arrived to work in America's mines and factories.

Technological advances transformed production. The new machine tool industry, which turned out drilling, cutting, and milling machines, sped up manufacturing. A trail of inventions, including the telephone, typewriter, linotype, phonograph, electric light, cash register, air brake, refrigerator car, and automobile, led to new industries. Finally, business leaders learned how to operate and coordinate many different economic activities across broad geographic areas. Businesses were thus able to become larger, and the modern corporation became an important form of business organization.



The cotton gin was one of the first industrial inventions in America and advanced the growth of the textile industry.  It eventually increased the demand for more slaves.



The Factors of Production: Land, Labor & Capital (capital is money for investment)

The Stock Market allows businesses to raise capital.  Capital is needed to create the large factories and large corporations which are associated with industrialization


Investopedia Stock Simulator - Portfolio

Screen clipping taken: 1/17/2012 4:40 PM


Free-enterprise economic system—The Economic System of the United States.  Businesses are privately owned and consumers and suppliers are free to make economic choices.   The forces of supply and demand control the market place.  It is also referred to as a market economy.


A characteristic of the free-enterprise system is that June ’01

(1) stockholders are guaranteed a profit

(2) governments control product choices

(3) foreign trade is discouraged

(4) businesses compete for consumer dollars


Corporations and Consolidation  
In the 19th century, states reduced the requirements for businesses to incorporate. A corporation is a form of business partnership; it is a legal entity that is distinct from the individuals who control it. The corporation (not the individual partners) is responsible for repaying the corporation’s debts; this is known as limited liability. The corporate form of business organization made it possible for entrepreneurs to finance large-scale enterprises because corporations issue stock, certificates representing shares of ownership in a corporation. By issuing stock, a corporation can enable thousands of individuals to pool financial resources and invest in a new venture.

Businesses also grew by combining into trusts. In a trust, a small group of business people, called trustees, acquire enough shares in several competing firms to control those companies. The trustees are then able to manage and direct a group of companies in a unified way, in effect, creating a single firm out of competing firms. The trustees could prevent competition among the firms that were part of the trust. A leading example was the Standard Oil Trust, formed in Ohio in 1882 by John D. Rockefeller and his associates. Within a decade, trusts dominated many industries.

Thomas Edison
  • Andrew Carnegie: Railroads and Steel
  • John D. Rockefeller: Oil
  • Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt: Shipping and Railroads
  • John Jacob Astor: Real Estate and Fur
  • Henry Clay Frick: Steel
  • Jay Gould and James Fisk: Railroads and Finance
  • Andrew Mellon: Finance
  • Leland Stanford: Railroads
  • John Pierpont Morgan: Finance
  • Collis P. Huntington: Railroads
  • Charles Crocker: railroads
  • George Mortimer Pullman: Railroads
  • Thomas Alva Edison and the Business of Invention: Edison is not generally included in the category of “robber barons,” but his name should be included among the industrial giants of the Gilded Age.

Expanding West and the Transcontinental Railroad
The Homestead Act of 1862

The Homestead Act was signed into law by Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862, during the Civil War. It was an outgrowth of the demand for western lands as the population grew. Adult heads of families were allowed one hundred sixty acres of surveyed public land for a small filing fee and five years of continued residency on the land. This included freed slaves. Those claiming the land were required to improve it by building a dwelling and cultivating the land. The Union soldiers in the Civil War could claim credit for time served to meet the requirements for residency; however the stipulation was that no soldier or citizen who had borne arms against the United States could claim such land.

Most of the land was already occupied by Native American tribes but the government pushed them onto barren lands unsuited for the lifestyle they had been accustomed to. This led to increased tensions and fighting between the Native Americans and the United States government as well as citizens who settled on the newly opened lands

Forty-five percent of all the land in Nebraska was given away by the federal government under the provisions of the Homestead Act of 1862.
Where are these states located?
The U.S. government offered the land and provided the money to expand the nations' railroad system.
On May 10th, 1869, the two railroads met at Promontory Point, Utah, where their tracks were joined, and the last tie laid. The laurelwood tie was hammered in with a bronze spike and a golden spike to commemorate the occasion.
European immigrants arriving at Ellis Island in 1902The Work Force
  • After 1880, a major new source of labor for American factories was immigrants from southern and eastern Europe.




The United States has always been a nation of immigrants. During the Gilded Age, immigration to America increased tremendously. More people came to the United States than ever before, but they were also coming from different places, and in doing so they added to the culture of America . Was America becoming a "melting-pot," or a "salad-bowl" of differing cultures?

  • Periods of Immigration:
    • Colonial Immigration (time period, place of origin, difficulties, etc.)
    • "Old" immigration (time period, place of origin, difficulties, etc.)
    • "New" Immigration (time period, place of origin, difficulties, etc.)
  • Reaction Against Immigration:
    • Nativism
    • Know-Nothing Party
    • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 ("Yellow Peril")
    • National Origins Acts (1924, 1929)
  • Theories of Immigration:
    • "Melting-Pot" Theory
    • Assimilation
    • " Salad-Bowl" Theory (Pluralism)


Urbanization was a direct result of the Industrial Revolution in the United States . Burgeoning factories were centralized in cities which offered a central location for resources and workers to fuel their production. Immigrants and displaced rural workers flooded cities in the hopes of finding employment. Throughout the Gilded Age there were several positive, as well as negative, effects that can be attributed to urbanization.

  • Negative Effects of Urbanization:
    • Housing (tenements, slums, etc.)
    • Health (disease, sanitation, etc.)
    • Working Conditions (child labor, etc.)
    • Political Machines (Tamany Hall, graft, etc.)
  • Positive Effects of Urbanization:
    • New Technologies (elevators, skyscrapers, street lighting, water and sewage systems, etc.)
    • Cultural Benefits (museums, theaters, parks, libraries, education, etc.)
  • Philosophies:
    • Puritan Work Ethic
    • Social Darwinism (Horatio Alger, etc.)

Photographs by Jacob Riis - documented the deplorable conditions of the tenements

In December, 1889, an account of city life, illustrated by photographs, appeared in Scribner's Magazine. This created a great deal of interest and the following year, a full-length version,How the Other Half Lives, was published. The book was seen by Theodore Roosevelt, the New York Police Commissioner, and he had the city police lodging houses that were featured in the book closed down.


Corruption, Politica Machines, Tamney Hall & Boss Tweed

A political machine (or simply machine) is a political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts. The power of the machine is based on the ability of the workers to get out the vote for their candidates on election day.


The U.S. Government & Laissez-Faire politics

States tried to regulate trusts, but big businesses eluded state control. Afraid that trusts would destroy competition, Congress in 1890 passed the Sherman Antitrust Act. The act banned businesses from joining together in ways that controlled markets, as trusts had been doing. It also outlawed monopoly, in which only a single seller or producer supplies a commodity or a service. But the law defined neither trust nor monopoly and was poorly enforced. The courts threw out cases against the trusts and used the law mainly to declare unions illegal combinations in restraint of trade. For instance, the court declared unions that organized boycotts or strikes impeded the flow of commerce and thus violated federal law. Standard Oil, however, continued without interference. In 1892, to avoid Ohio laws, Standard Oil incorporated in New Jersey as a holding company, a corporation with only one purpose: to buy out the stock of other companies.

Corporations introduced new styles of management, or business organization. The railroads, which needed to manage crews, fuel, repairs, and train schedules over large areas, were the first to develop new management techniques. The railroads also developed standard time, which the United States adopted in 1883. Steel industry tycoon Andrew Carnegie, who continually sought less costly ways to make steel, also introduced new management techniques. The Carnegie Steel Company used precise accounting systems to track the costs of all processes and materials involved in making steel. To do this work, Carnegie hired middle managers and encouraged them to compete with one another.

Social Darwinism - Survival of the fittest in the business arena

New business practices led to larger corporations. Andrew Carnegie practiced vertical integration; he bought companies that sold supplies to the steel industry, including coal and iron mines and a railroad line. Carnegie thereby controlled every stage of the productive process from raw materials to marketing. Finally, he engaged in horizontal consolidation by acquiring his competitors. He priced his products so low that competitors could not compete and make a profit. Then he bought them out. By 1899 Carnegie's company was the world's biggest industrial corporation and produced one-fourth of the nation's steel. However, vertical integration and horizontal consolidation helped concentrate power in a few giant corporations and limited competition.

According to business magnates such as Rockefeller and Carnegie, their huge enterprises provided new products at lower costs and enriched the nation, as well as themselves. Stressing the value of competition, captains of industry argued that it ensured the survival of the most competent. Business leaders also endorsed a policy of laissez-faire. Government, they believed, should leave business alone. In fact, the federal government adopted policies to benefit big business. Congress passed high tariffs (taxes on imported products) that impeded foreign competition; federal subsidies to railroads enriched investors; and courts penalized labor more often than business.


Philanthropy & the Gilded Age
Philanthropy & the practice of sharing wealth for the general improvement of society.
Some Large Individual Bequests

                  his wealth to good causes, including the building Carnegie HallNew York City.[6]

  • $350 million from Michael Jackson who distributed most of his wealth to good causes, and who

                   supported over 39 charity organizations. He was listed in the Guinness Book Of World Records

                   for the "Most Charities Supported By a Pop Star".

           of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 2011.

Morgan Library and Annex, 29-33 East 36th Street.

Between the Civil War and the end of the 19th century, the American economy was transformed. Huge new industries – petroleum, railroads, iron and steel, natural gas, and aluminum – emerged and a rural, agrarian nation became urban and industrial.

One aspect of this transformation that has long fascinated Americans is the role that a small band of men – collectively known as "the Robber Barons" – played in this revolution. The names are well known: Morgan, Carnegie, Frick, Gould, Vanderbilt, Rockefeller, and Mellon. But we tend to view them as stereotypes – greedy, rapacious individuals who accumulated vast fortunes by buying politicians and exploiting employees.

Excuse me - "Can you tell me how to get to Carnegie Hall"....practice, lots and lots of practice.
A noted musician was aboard the same ship as Andrew Carnegie and the musician discussed his vision for a new concert hall in New York City. Carnegie expressed interest in committing a portion of his enormous wealth to the project, and the idea of Carnegie Hall was born.


From this germ of an idea grew a legendary concert hall whose allure has drawn the world’s greatest artists to its stages, setting the standard for excellence in music for more than a century. Gustav Mahler, Leopold Stokowski, Vladimir Horowitz, Liza Minnelli, Paul Robeson, Bob Dylan—they all made their mark at Carnegie Hall. Andrew Carnegie proclaimed at the ceremonial laying of the cornerstone in 1890, “It is built to stand for ages, and during these ages it is probable that this hall will intertwine itself with the history of our country.” Indeed, some of the most prominent political figures, authors, and intellectuals have appeared at Carnegie Hall, from Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt to Mark Twain and Booker T. Washington. In addition to standing as the pinnacle of musical achievement, Carnegie Hall has been an integral player in the development of American history.

The Gilded Age


During the "Gilded Age," every man was a potential Andrew Carnegie, and Americans who achieved wealth celebrated it as never before. In New York, the opera, the theatre, and lavish parties consumed the ruling class' leisure hours. Sherry's Restaurant hosted formal horseback dinners for the New York Riding Club. Mrs. Stuyvesant Fish once threw a dinner party to honor her dog who arrived sporting a $15,000 diamond collar.

While the rich wore diamonds, many wore rags. In 1890, 11 million of the nation's 12 million families earned less than $1200 per year; of this group, the average annual income was $380, well below the poverty line. Rural Americans and new immigrants crowded into urban areas. Tenements spread across city landscapes, teeming with crime and filth. Americans had sewing machines, phonographs, skyscrapers, and even electric lights, yet most people labored in the shadow of poverty.

To those who worked in Carnegie's mills and in the nation's factories and sweatshops, the lives of the millionaires seemed immodest indeed. An economist in 1879 noted "a widespread feeling of unrest and brooding revolution." Violent strikes and riots wracked the nation through the turn of the century. The middle class whispered fearfully of "carnivals of revenge."

For immediate relief, the urban poor often turned to political machines. During the first years of the Gilded Age, Boss Tweed's Tammany Hall provided more services to the poor than any city government before it, although far more money went into Tweed's own pocket. Corruption extended to the highest levels of government. During Ulysses S. Grant's presidency, the president and his cabinet were implicated in the Credit Mobilier, the Gold Conspiracy, the Whiskey Ring, and the notorious Salary Grab.



REACTIONS -The Gilded Age was a period of immense change in the United States . All of the abuses and problems of the time generated many different reactions- most directed at reform. Slowly, government regulations began to reign in the abuses of big business. At the same time, social reformers actively sought to correct the problems evident in American cities.

  • Granger Movement:
    • Railroad Practices (pools, rebates, etc.)
    • Railroads=Public Utility
    • Bloc Voting
    • Granger State Laws
    • Munn v. Illinois (1877)
    • Wabash Case (1886)
    • Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
  • Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
  • Unionism:
    • Collective Bargaining
    • Knights of Labor
    • American Federation of Labor
    • International Ladies' Garment Workers Union
  • Early Reformers:
    • Thomas Nast
    • Jane Addams ( Hull House)


The main purpose of this 1886 poster was to


1. oppose immigrants who took jobs from American workers

2. support nativist calls for limitations on labor unions

3. organize a protest against acts of police brutality against workers

4. show support for police actions against foreign revolutionaries



The Pullman Strike
























Samuel Gompers was an early labor leader, first in his own union and later as president of the American Federation of Labor. As its president nearly continuously between 1886 and 1924, Gompers led the labor movement in achieving solid gains for workers. He maintained a focused view of trade unionism, believing that unions should concentrate on better collective bargaining agreements and legislation affecting labor, while avoiding broad social issues.




Unfair business practices


















Tools used by unions.


Tools used by business.


blacklists and yellow-dog contracts


Until the 1930s, employers were able to use a variety of measures to prevent employees from joining labor unions. One of the most effective was the yellow dog contract, which frequently forced employees to either sign an agreement not to join a union or be fired. Courts upheld the legality of yellow dog contracts and frequently struck down state laws that sought to outlaw them. The enactment of the Wagner Act in 1935 (29 U.S.C.A. § 151 et seq.) finally put an end to these types of agreements.




Interstate Commerce Act


Interstate Commerce Act


As a result of the failure of states to regulate railroads, the United States Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887. The Interstate Commerce Act required that railroads charge fair rates to their customers and make those rates public. This legislation also created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), which had the authority to investigate and prosecute companies who violated the law.







Sherman Antitrust Act -  Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890, first measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit trusts.

The concentration of economic power in the hands of large corporations and trusts led Congress to pass the Sherman Act. The act, based on the constitutional power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce, declared illegal every contract, combination (in the form of trust or otherwise), or conspiracy in restraint of interstate and foreign trade.

A major goal of the Sherman Antitrust Act was to prevent the formation of business monopolies






Supreme Court Decisions related to Industrialization

  • 1886 Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific RR v. Illinois
    Struck down a state law regulating transportation contracts because the federal government held sole jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
  • 1890 Chicago, Milwaukee, & St. Louis RR v. Minnesota
    Invalidated a state law that prevented parties from appealing certain decisions of the state government to the courts.
  • 1895 U.S. v. EC Knight Co.
    Ruled that the Sherman Anti-Trust Act does not apply to manufacturers located within a single state

    In the 1877 case Munn v. Illinois, the Supreme Court upheld an Illinois law controlling grain elevator rates. The Court

    ruled that the Constitution recognized a state’s right to a “police power” that permitted regulation of private property.

    In the 1886 case Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois, however, the Court ruled that states could not

    regulate railroad rates on portions of interstate routes that lay within their borders. Under the Constitution, only the

    federal government can regulate interstate trade. This decision meant that states could do little to regulate the


    The Supreme Court cases of Wabash, St. Louis   & Pacific R.R. v. Illinois (1886) and United States v. E. C. Knight Co. (1895) were based on laws that were intended to limit the power of big business.


    Read more:


    Dawes Act

    An effort to assimilate Native Americans into the mainstream "Ämerican"culture.


    Dawes Act or General Allotment Act,1887, passed by the U.S. Congress to provide for the granting of landholdings (allotments, usually 160 acres/65 hectares) to individual Native Americans, replacing communal tribal holdings. Sponsored by U.S. Senator H. L. Dawes, the aim of the act was to absorb tribe members into the larger national society. Allotments could be sold after a statutory period (25 years), and “surplus” land not allotted was opened to settlers. Within decades following the passage of the act the vast majority of what had been tribal land in the West was in white hands.

    The act also established a trust fund to collect and distribute proceeds from oil, mineral, timber, and grazing leases on Native American lands. The failure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to manage this trust fund properly led to legislation and lawsuits in the 1990s and early 2000s to force the government to properly account for the revenues collected










    Practice questions from the state.



    1. During the late 1800s, the idea of Social Darwinism was used to explain the  (# 14-Au11)

    (1) development of the Granger movement

    (2) need for settlement homes

    (3) creation of a national parks system

    (4) success or failure of businesses


    2. After 1880, a major new source of labor for American factories was 

    (1) western farmers who moved back to eastern cities

    (2) young women who worked until they married

    (3) formerly enslaved persons fleeing from the South

    (4) immigrants from southern and eastern Europe 


    3. During the late 19th century, which practices were used by employers against workers?(#11-Au04)

    (1) boycotts and lockouts

    (2) picketing and walkouts

    (3) blacklists and yellow-dog contracts

    (4) mass rallies and sit-down strikes


    4. What major trend related to population occurred during the industrialization boom of the late 1800s?(#13-Au04)

    (1) Immigration decreased.

    (2) Suburbanization decreased.

    (3) Urbanization increased.

    (4) Migration to rural areas increased.


    Base your answers to question 5 on the song below

    We mean to make things over,

    we are tired of toil for naught,

    With but bare enough to live upon,

    and never an hour for thought;

    We want to feel the sunshine,

    and we want to smell the flowers,

    We are sure that God has will’d it,

    and we mean to have eight hours.

    We’re summoning our forces

    from the shipyard, shop and mill,


    Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest,

    eight hours for what we will!

    Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest,

    eight hours for what we will!

    — I.G. Blanchard, “Eight Hours,” 1878


    5. During the late 1800s, the ideas expressed in these lyrics were the goals of  (#15-Ja10)

    (1) organizers of labor unions

    (2) sharecroppers following the Civil War

    (3) Grangers demanding railroad regulation

    (4) owners of big


    6. During the 19th century, New York was one of the most powerful states in the nation because it (#10-Au04)

    (1) became the financial and industrial center of the nation

    (2) led the nation in achieving political reforms

    (3) produced more presidents than any other state

    (4) offered more civil liberties than any other state businesses


    7. During the early 1800s, which factor contributed the most to the start of the Industrial Revolution in the United States? (#8-Ja10)

    (1) a restriction on European immigration

    (2) the end of the slave labor system

    (3) an abundance of natural resources

    (4) the availability of electricity


    Base the answer to question 8 on the graph below


    8. Which trend is shown in these graphs? (#15-Au05)

    (1) When production increases, prices decrease.

    (2) When production increases, prices increase.

    (3) When production remains unchanged, prices decrease.

    (4) Prices and production are usually unrelated.


    Base your answers to questions 15 on the cartoon below

    9.  Which idea of the late 1800s is most closely associated with this cartoon? (#15-Ja06)

    (1) regulated capitalism

    (2) graduated income tax

    (3) Social Darwinism

    (4) the Gospel of Wealth


    10 The term robber baron was used to criticize the(#12-Au04)

    (1) tactics of big-business leaders

    (2) corruption of government officials

    (3) dishonesty of carpetbaggers

    (4) unskilled labor of illegal immigrants


    11 Which major population shift in the late 1800s occurred as a result of industrialization? (#14-Ja06)

    (1) northerners to the Sun Belt

    (2) rural residents to urban areas

    (3) working class people from the cities to the suburbs

    (4) African Americans from the North to the South


    12 Which group’s numbers increased the most as a result of the Industrial Revolution?

    (1) skilled craftsmen

    (2) landed aristocracy

    (3) urban middle class

    (4) owners of small farms


    13. During the late 1800s, major improvements to a nationwide system of trade were made with the (#19-Aug. ’10)

    a. construction of a network of canals

    b. use of steamboats on rivers

    c. completion of transcontinental railroads

    d. construction of toll roads


    Base the answer to question 14 on the cartoon below.


    14.  The principal message of the cartoon is that the Standard Oil Company _(#20-Aug. ’10)

    a. used its size to lower the prices of its products

    b. protected the nation from foreign competition

    c. used its economic power to influence government decisions

    d. employed violence to gain an unfair advantage for its workers


    15. In passing the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), Congress intended to (#18-June ’10)

    a. prevent large corporations from eliminating their competition

    b. distinguish good trusts from bad trusts

    c. regulate rates charged by railroads

    d. force large trusts to bargain with labor unions


    16. A high protective tariff passed by Congress is intended to affect the United States economy by (#19-June ’10)

    a. promoting free trade

    b. limiting industrial jobs

    c. encouraging American manufacturing

    d. expanding global interdependence


    17. During the early 1800s, which factor contributed the most to the start of the Industrial Revolution in the United States? (#8 Jan. ’10)

    a. a restriction on European immigration

    b. the end of the slave labor system

    c. an abundance of natural resources

    d. the availability of electricity


    18. In 1862, the Homestead Act and the Pacific Railway Act were passed primarily to (13-Jan. ’10)

    a. achieve Northern victory in the Civil War

    b. develop the Midwest and western parts of the country

    c. improve the lives of freed slaves

    d. expand overseas markets to Asia and Europe


    19. During the late 1800s, what was a major effect of industrialization on workers in the United States?(#16- Jan. ’10)

    a. Membership in labor unions declined.

    b. Workers migrated to rural regions.

    c. Most factory jobs became service industry jobs.

    d. Skilled craftsmen were replaced by semiskilled machine operators.


    Base your answers to questions 20 and 21 on the speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of social studies. Jan. ’10

    Speaker A: Feeding and clothing the poor is a mistake. Just as nature weeds out unfit members, a capitalist society should be allowed to do the same.

    Speaker B: To provide for the common good and protect the people, the government should pass laws to prevent the sale of alcohol.

    Speaker C: To promote economic growth, the government should expand United States markets overseas.

    Speaker D: Since transportation is a public necessity, the government should own and operate the railroads in the public interest.


    20.  Which speaker would most likely support the theory of Social Darwinism? (#17-Jan. ’10)

    a. A (3) C

    b. B (4) D


    21. Which third party held beliefs most similar to those expressed by Speaker D? (#18-Jan. ’10)

    a. Know-Nothing                                (3) Populist

    b. Greenback                                       (4) Bull Moose


    22. During the late 1800s, presidents and governors most often used military force during labor management conflicts as a way to (19-Jan. ’10)

    a. support industrialists and end strikes

    b. make employers sign collective bargaining agreements

    c. protect workers from the private armies of employers

    d. replace striking factory workers with soldiers


    Base your answers to questions 23 and 24 on the song below and on your knowledge of social studies. Aug. ’09


    We mean to make things over, we are tired of toil for naught,

    With but bare enough to live upon, and never an hour for thought;

    We want to feel the sunshine, and we want to smell the flowers,

    We are sure that God has will’d it, and we mean to have eight hours.

    We’re summoning our forces from the shipyard, shop and mill, Chorus.

    Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, eight hours for what we will!

    Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, eight hours for what we will!

    — I.G. Blanchard, “Eight Hours,” 1878


    23 During the late 1800s, the ideas expressed in these lyrics were the goals of (#15-Aug. ’09)

    a. organizers of labor unions

    b. sharecroppers following the Civil War

    c. Grangers demanding railroad regulation

    d. owners of big businesses


    24.  In the 1890s, which political party incorporated the chief concern expressed in this song into its platform?

     (#16-Aug.) ’09

    a.       Know-Nothing                                   (3) Whig

    b.       Populist                                                (4) Bull Moose


    25. The mechanization of agriculture in the United States led directly to (#19-June ’09)

    a. an increase in production

    b. less dependence on railroads by farmers

    c. fewer agricultural exports

    d. the decreasing size of the average farm


    26. During the late 1800s, many United States farmers believed their economic problems would be solved if the federal government would (#16-Jan. ’09)

    a. raise interest rates

    b. outlaw strikes by labor unions

    c. put more money into circulation

    d. regulate the amount of grain that was produced


    27. In the late 19th century, critics of big business claimed that monopolies most harmed the economy by (#17-Jan. ’09)

    a. limiting competition

    b. decreasing the urban growth rate

    c. preventing technological innovation

    d. failing to keep pace with European industries


    28. In the late 19th century, the ideas of Social Darwinism were used primarily to (18-Jan. ’09)

    a. encourage the passage of compulsory

    b. explain the differences in income between the rich and the poor

    c. urge Congress to end immigration

    d. support the growth of new political parties


    29. The principal reason Congress raised tariff rates in the late 1800s and early 1900s was to (#19-Jan. ’09)

    a. increase personal income taxes

    b. lower prices for American consumers

    c. guarantee high wages to American workers

    d. protect United States businesses from foreign competition


    30. Today, the Federal Reserve System attempts to stabilize the economy of the United States by (#23-Jan. ’09)

    a. requiring federal budgets be prepared and presented to Congress

    b. levying and collecting income taxes

    c. regulating interest rates and the money supply

    d. backing all currency with silver and gold


    Base the answer to question 30 on the chart below


    31. The overall trend shown on the graph was primarily the result of (#24-Jan. ’09)

    a. a decline in the economy

    b. the increased use of the assembly line

    c. a shift of the population from urban areas to farms

    d. an increase in the price of automobiles


    32. Skip


    33.During the late 1800s, pools and trusts were used by big business in an effort to (#16-Aug. ’08)

    a. increase imports

    b. limit competition

    c. improve working conditions

    d. reduce corporate income taxes


    34. Skip  (#17-Aug. ’08)


    35.  . . .“You are our employers, but you are not our masters. Under the system of government we have in the United States we are your equals, and we contribute as much, if not more, to the success of industry than do the employers.” . . . — testimony, United States Congress, April 29, 1911

    The point of view expressed in the quotation was most likely that of a (#18-Aug. ’08)

    a. recent immigrant responding to discrimination

    b. government official campaigning for reelection

    c. woman demanding the right of suffrage

    d. labor leader speaking about the rights of workers


    36. The Federal Reserve System was created in 1913 to (#21-Aug. ’08)

    a. protect endangered species

    b. reduce tariff rates

    c. collect income taxes

    d. regulate the nation’s money supply


    37. In the late 1800s, the Homestead steel strike and the Pullman railcar strike were unsuccessful because (#19-June ’08)

    a. the government supported business owners

    b. most workers refused to take part in the strike

    c. the Supreme Court ruled both strikes were illegal

    d. factory owners hired children to replace the strikers


    38. Passage of the Homestead Act and of legislation supporting the construction of transcontinental railroads demonstrated the federal government’s commitment to (#15-Jan. ’08)

    a. limits on big business

    b. settlement of western territories

    c. conservation of natural resources

    d. equality for all immigrants


    39. Which factor contributed the most to urbanization in the late 1800s? (#16-Jan. ’08)

    a. assimilation

    b. industrialization


    40. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, the term robber baron best defined a person who (#18-Jan. ’08)

    a. controlled large tracts of western lands

    b. used ruthless business tactics

    c. stole from the rich to give to the poor

    d. encouraged the conservation of raw materials


    41 In the late 1800s, the principles of Social Darwinism were most consistent with the ideas of (#21-Aug. ’07)

    a. Populism

    b. laissez-faire economics

    c. trustbusting

    d. utopian socialism


    42. The theory of Social Darwinism was often used to justify the (#24-June ’07)

    (1) creation of the Ku Klux Klan

    (2) formation of business monopolies

    (3) use of strikes by labor unions

    (4) passage of antitrust laws


    43. In the late 1800s, the creation of the Standard Oil Trust by John D. Rockefeller was intended to (#17-Jan. ’07)

    (1) protect small, independent oil firms

    (2) control prices and practices in the oil refining business

    (3) increase competition among oil refining companies

    (4) distribute donations to charitable causes


    44. The Supreme Court cases of Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific R.R. v. Illinois (1886) and United States v. E. C. Knight Co. (1895) were based on laws that were intended to (#20-Jan. ’07)

    (1) limit the power of big business

    (2) support farmers’ efforts to increase the money supply

    (3) maintain a laissez-faire approach to the economy

    (4) improve working conditions for immigrants