The Crusades -
Holy wars between Muslims and Christians
During the Golden Age of Islam, the Abassid Dynasty practiced religious tolerance.
As Islam expanded, many governments in newly conquered areas recognized the rights of Arab and non-Arab Muslims as well as those of Jews and Christians.
Jerusalem has been a Holy city for three religions- Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Free the Holy Land from Seljuq control
The First Crusade
Brought much of the Holy Land under European control
Other Major Crusades
The Second Crusade – failed to recapture Damascus
The Third Crusade – again failed to recapture Jerusalem
The Fourth Crusade – Constantinople collapsed in 1453
Other crusades – crusades continued until the last Christian stronghold, Acre, fell in 1291
Results of the Crusades
Political changes – fewer lords, stronger kings, end of feudalism, more powerful Christian church
Ideas and trade – new ideas and trade patterns
Crusades (1096 – 1291AD)
The year 1071 is considered to be the beginning of the Turks and that of Islam Anatolia. It is following this date that the Turks fully conquered the whole of Anatolia and established the Anatolian Seljuk state there as a part of the great Seljuk Empire.
In 1071 AD, a group of Muslims, called Seljuk Turks, stopped allowing Christian visitors to come into Jerusalem at all.
Remember, during the Golden Age of Islam (9th – 11th centuries prior to 1071, those Muslims promoted religious tolerance
Pope Urban II- Proclaims the
Richard the Lion-Hearted
King of England 1189-99, Richard I was known as a powerful king, a chivalrous knight and a fearless warrior best known as the Crusader King.
Saladin – Islamic Leader
In the late 1100s, Saladin (a Kurd) was greatest leader against the Christian crusaders. Saladin was able to unite the many small Islamic groups surrounding the crusader states. He became the supreme leader of both Egypt and Syria in 1171.
Muslims eventually defeat the Christians
There were 4 major crusades between 1090 – 1292
The Christians ultimately lost
The Christians returned to Europe
Goods from east are in demand (silks and spices) in Europe
Towns grow as commerce increases.
Trade between Europe and the Middle East expanded
As Trade increases
The power of kings increases
The power of the nobles decreases.
A middle class grows
Feudalism is weakened
Rise of Capitalism
As feudalism declined, a trading economy emerged.
It relied on capital (money used for investment)
European interest in learning
Returning crusaders were exposed to Greco-Roman ideas preserved by both the Byzantine and Islamic people.
Magna Carta 1215