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Middle Ages






Christianity. A History - 3. Dark Ages .






Dark Ages 1of10 - History Channel


Christianity A History "Crusades" 1/4


Christianity A History "Crusades" 3/4

Christianity A History "Crusades" 4/4

The Crusades -

Holy wars between Muslims and Christians

During the Golden Age of Islam, the Abassid Dynasty practiced religious tolerance.

As Islam expanded, many governments in newly conquered areas recognized the rights of Arab and non-Arab Muslims as well as those of Jews and Christians.


Jerusalem has been a Holy city for three religions- Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

      or Jews, it was the city where King David ruled and where the great Temple had stood.

      For Christians, it was the city where Jesus had lived, preached, and been crucified.

      For followers of Islam (Muslims) it was where their leader, Mohammed, ascended into heaven for his "night flights with Allah".

      The city was full of people from all three religions who lived there in peace. Visitors came by the thousands from all over the western world to visit the holy places in Jerusalem.

    Free the Holy Land from Seljuq control

    The First Crusade

    Brought much of the Holy Land under European control



    Other Major Crusades



    The Second Crusade – failed to recapture Damascus


    The Third Crusade – again failed to recapture Jerusalem


    The Fourth Crusade – Constantinople collapsed in 1453


    Other crusades – crusades continued until the last Christian stronghold, Acre, fell in 1291


    Results of the Crusades

    Weapons and warfare – crossbow, new ways to wage war



    Political changes – fewer lords, stronger kings, end of feudalism, more powerful Christian church

    Ideas and trade – new ideas and trade patterns

    Crusades (1096 – 1291AD)


    Seljuk Empire

    The year 1071 is considered to be the beginning of the Turks and that of Islam Anatolia. It is following this date that the Turks fully conquered the whole of Anatolia and established the Anatolian Seljuk state there as a part of the great Seljuk Empire.


    Seljuk Empire

    In 1071 AD, a group of Muslims, called Seljuk Turks, stopped allowing Christian visitors to come into Jerusalem at all.

    Remember, during the Golden Age of Islam (9th – 11th centuries prior to 1071, those Muslims promoted religious tolerance

    Pope Urban II-  Proclaims the 
    First Crusade

    Richard the Lion-Hearted

    King of England 1189-99, Richard I was known as a powerful king, a chivalrous knight and a fearless warrior best known as the Crusader King.

    Saladin – Islamic Leader

    In the late 1100s, Saladin (a Kurd) was greatest leader against the Christian crusaders. Saladin was able to unite the many small Islamic groups surrounding the crusader states. He became the supreme leader of both Egypt and Syria in 1171.


    Muslims eventually  defeat the Christians

    There were 4 major crusades between 1090 – 1292

    The Christians ultimately lost

    The Christians returned to Europe

    Trade grows

    Revival of Medieval Trade

    Goods from east are in demand (silks and spices) in Europe

    Towns grow as commerce increases.

    Trade between Europe and the Middle East expanded

    As Trade increases

    The power of kings increases

    The power of the nobles decreases.

    A middle class grows

    Feudalism is weakened

    Rise of Capitalism

    As feudalism declined, a trading economy emerged.

    It relied on capital (money used for investment)

    European interest in learning

    Returning crusaders were exposed to Greco-Roman ideas preserved by both the Byzantine and Islamic people.


    Magna Carta 1215


    A Medieval City

    This video is a companion piece to two videos about medieval manors, showing how the villages of medieval Europe achieved a sustainable economy through a program of gradual improvement. At the same time that medieval villages were recovering from the fall of the Roman Empire, the cities of Europe were also growing. This looks at the growth of the medieval city of Troyes, one of the great trade towns of eastern France.



    Commercial Revolution


    All about the Renaissance Part 01 Historical Background Beginnings and Art



    The Medici - Makers of Modern Art

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    Documentary in which Andrew Graham-Dixon reveals how the Medici family transformed Florence through sculpture, painting and architecture and created a world where masterpieces fetch millions today.
    Without the money and patronage of the Medici we might never have heard of artists such as Donatello, Michelangelo or Botticelli. Graham-Dixon examines how a family of shadowy, corrupt businessmen, driven by greed and ambition, became the financial engine behind the Italian Renaissance.



    Commercial Revolution


    The Black Death Documentary