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Unit 7 - Middle East in the Modern Era 

Middle East since WWII

The Decline of the Ottomans

  European advances in technology and internal disorder all contributed to the fall

     The Ottomans were part of the central powers during WWI.

     The Ottoman Empire was disbanded after WWI

     Ottoman Sultan's lands were divided into various new nations and territories

Creation of Turkey - Republic of Turkey was created in 1923.

 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk - Nationalist leader of the Turkish national liberation

    struggle in 1919. Founder of the TurkishRepublic and its first President. Wanted to

     modernize and westernize the new country of Turkey.   Turkey - Received aid from

      the U.S. to ward off Soviet advances in the late 1940’s under the Truman Doctrine.


     Nationalist movements

     Pan Arabism - Movement to build closer ties among Arabs.

     Zionism - The national movement for the return of the Jewish people to their homeland and the resumption of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel.  A movement of the Jewish people to return from the Diaspora to Palestine.

     Theodor Herzl - Austro-Hungarian Jewish journalist who founded modern political Zionism.

     Balfour Declaration – 1917 – England promises the Jews a homeland back in Israel.

     Great Britain turns Palestine over to the United Nations. 

     Great Britain had received control of Palestine as a result of the German’s losing WWI

     David Ben Gurion - Zionist who became Israel’s first Prime Minister in 1948.

     Israel/Palestine Created by the U.N. in 1948

     Within  24 hours, surrounding Arab nations attacked it (Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt & Transjordan)

     Egypt - nationalized the Suez Canal – 1956 - The Suez Crisis Great BritainFrance & Israel attacked Egypt after Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal

     Gamal Abdel Nassar - He was determined to end western power in Egypt.  The Soviet Union supported Egypt in their wars against Israel.

     1973 Yom Kippur War - On Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), the holiest day of the Jewish year, when Egypt and Syria launched a coordinated surprise assault against Israel (6 October 1973), with the Egyptian army crossing the Suez Canal and Syrian troops penetrating the Golan Heights. Israel gains territory

     Palestinian Refugees

     Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries  (Oil Cartel) -  OPEC cuts oil production.

     1979 Oil Crisis -

Menachem Begin

      Prime Minister of Israel1977 – 1983

      Preceded by Yitzhak Rabin

     In September 1983, Begin stepped down as prime minister,

      Succeeded by Yitzhak Shamir

Anwar Sadat was President of Egypt, from 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981

     His leadership in the October War of 1973 and the regaining Sinai made him an Egyptian hero.

     His visit to Israel and the eventual Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty won him the Courage of Conscience award September 11, 1991

     This was enormously unpopular with the Arab world and Islamists, and resulted in Egypt being expelled from the Arab League

Camp David Accords leads to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty
As a result of these negotiations

      Egypt signs a peace with Israel affirming Israel’s right to exist

      1982- Israel withdrew from the Sinai

Kibbutz (kibbutzim) Collective farms

The Arab League

     Mission: To serve the common good of all Arab countries, ensure better conditions for all Arab countries, guarantee the future of all Arab countries and fulfill the hopes and expectations of all Arab countries

     the Arab League suspended Egypt's membership in the wake of Egypt's peace agreement with Israel

PLO= Palestine Liberation Organization

     Nationalist group that seeks to obtain greater freedom and expanded territory for the Palestinian people.

Yassar Arafat

     Nationalist leader of the PLO

Occupied territories

     Gaza strip

     Golan Heights

The Assassination of Anwar Sadat

     On October 6, 1981, Sadat was assassinated.

     The assassination was carried out by members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad.

     They opposed Sadat's negotiations with Israel,.

Oslo Accords,  August 20, 1993

      Transfer of Powers to the Palestinians

      The PLO recognizes the right of the State of Israel to exist in peace and security.

Yitzhak Rabin

     He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel from 1974 until 1977 and again from 1992 until his assassination in 1995. He was the first Israeli-born Prime Minister of Israel, the only Prime Minister to be assassinated and the second to die in office.

     Rabin won the Nobel Peace Prize together with Shimon Peres and Yasser Arafat. He was assassinated by a right-wing Israeli radical opposed to Rabin's signing of the Oslo Accords

Palestinian National Authority

Egypt’s Peace with Israel

     Egypt lost territory in wars with Israel and later gained them back after the 1979 Peace Treaty

Egypt since 1978 - Pro Western

     President Bush, &  Egyptian President Mubarak Meet to discuss common issues

1979 - Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan This ends the period of détente (easing of tensions) that the superpowers enjoyed during the Cold War

Lebanon In 1958 U.S. Marines were sent here to stop the violence between the Christians and Muslims

     Shah Pahlavi – Iranian leader until 1979, Anti communist, Supported by the United States, Lost power in the Islamic Revolution of 1979

Intifada = uprising

      1987 First Intifada - Violence declined in 1991 and came to an end with the signing of the Oslo accords (August 1993) and the creation of the PalestinianNational Authority

     Since the intifada began in the autumn of 2000 the number of attacks on Israeli soil have increased.

1979 - Iranian Revolution

     U.S. Embassy attacked, 52 Americans taken hostage for 444 day.

     Iran is a Theocracy – government run by Islamic fundamentalism religious leaders

     Jihad (holy war)

     Sharia - Law was based on the Koran (Islamic system of law)

Iraq-Iran War 1980 - 1988

Kuwait - OperationDesert ShieldStorm, Persian Gulf War - 1991

The First Persian Gulf War,. Jan.–Feb., 1991, was an armed conflict between Iraq and a coalition of 32 nations including the United States, Britain, Egypt, France, and Saudi Arabia. It was a result of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on Aug. 2, 1990; Iraq then annexed Kuwait, which it had long claimed.

Terrorism - The September 11th World Trade Center attacks against the United States are associated with extremists from the Middle East 

Afghanistan - On Sept. 27, 1996, the Taliban movement displaced the ruling members of the Afghan government.

     The Taliban controlled 95 percent of the country.

         The Taliban was formed in 1994, Many followers attended conservative Muslim schools in Pakistan as refugees during the 1979-89 Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.

     Although Taliban was the self-proclaimed government of Afghanistan, neither the United Nations nor the Organization of the Islamic Conference had recognized them as such.

     Afghanistan has been occupied by the NATO alliance, mostly using United States troops, since 2001.

Saddam Hussein, War in Iraq, Iraq after the war

Genocide - Darfur, Sudan

      The Darfur region of western Sudan.   Some of the Sudanese government's behavior in Darfur is compared to that of the Nazis

      The combination of decades of drought, desertification, and overpopulation are among the causes of the Darfur conflict . Since early 2003, Sudanese government soldiers and their militia, known as the Janjaweed, have fought rebel groups in the western region of Darfur.

     Initially, the government strategy largely involved systematic assaults against civilians from the same ethnic groups as the rebel forces.

     Hundreds of thousands of civilians have died from violence, disease, and starvation, and thousands of women have been raped.

     More than 2.5 million civilians have been driven from their homes, their villages torched and property stolen.

     Thousands of villages have been systematically destroyed and more than 230,000 people have fled to neighboring Chad.

     Although large-scale government attacks against civilians have declined since 2005, millions remain at risk.

      Most of the displaced are not returning home for fear that their villages will be attacked again.   The Sides - Darfur,  Sudan - The Darfur crisis is a conflict in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The two main military sides is the Sudanese Military and the Janjaweed militia.

     The other side comprises a variety of rebel groups, notably the Sudan Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement, recruited primarily from the Fur, Zaghawa, and Massaleit ethnic groups

     Water Problem, Drought, Desalination, Oil Wealth

Iran a threat to the U.S. President Ahmadinejad - Iran defiant on nuclear as revolution

Middle East Today -Cultural diversity, Arab Socialism , Distribution of Wealth, Limited Water Supply, Traditional vs. Western culture, Desire for Arab Unity


Practice questions for the Middle East


_____ 1. In Iran, the Revolution of 1979 and Islamic fundamentalism resulted in

a.       an increase in woman’s rights

b.      the westernization and modernization of the nation

c.       a return to many traditional customs

d.      the introduction of a democratic form of government



_____ 2. The issue of the Arab-Israeli conflicts from 1948 to 1973 was the clash between

a.       Islamic Fundamentalism and Orthodox Judaism

b.      Arab socialism and Israeli capitalism

c.       Arab nationalism and Jewish nationalism

d.      Israeli technology and Saudi Arabian economic goals



_____3. Who were David Ben-Gurion, Golda Meir, and Menachem Begin?

a.       leaders of the modern state of Israel

b.      scientist who developed better methods of discovering oil

c.       clergy who supported Islamic Fundamentalism

d.      Egyptian presidents who encouraged peace with Israel



_____ 4. During the late 1980’s and early 1990’s the greatest threat to the stability of the

             nations of Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco was the

a.       rising standard of living of their citizens

b.      economic reforms taking place in Eastern Europe

c.       rise of Islamic Fundamentalism

d.      lack of financial aid from the United States



_____ 5. In 1979, the Camp David Accords by Egypt and Israel indicated that

a.       nationalism was no longer a force in middle Eastern politics

b.      the differences between Shi’ite and Sunni Moslems had been settled

c.       former enemies were able to negotiate

d.      the Soviet Union dominated Middle Eastern affairs



_____ 6. Israel is a country that has

a.       an abundance of oil                                   c. Islam as its official religion

b.      a democratically elected government       d. friendly ties to Iran



_____7.  During the 1980’s, the economic development of Iran and Iraq was disrupted

                because of

a.       increased emphasis on agricultural production for export

b.      the war fought between these nations

c.       communist revolutionary movements in these nations

d.      severe drought and famine in the area



_____ 8. A major factor that continues to contribute to terrorist activities in the Middle

               East is

a.       a decrease in crude oil prices on the world market

b.      the Palestinian effort to establish a homeland

c.       the presence of United Nations forces in Syria

d.      the worldwide rejection of violence as a means to end conflict


_____9. As a peace process continues in the Middle East, a major stumbling block to a

             settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict is the question of

a.       ownership and operation of the Suez Canal

b.      control of the Arabian Peninsula

c.       representation of Palestinian Arabs and Israelis

d.      land and civil rights for Palestinian Arabs


______10. During the 1980’s the governments of Libya and Iran were similar in that both

                   were linked to

a.       efforts to separate religion and politics

b.      advocates of judicial reform

c.       incidents of international terrorism

d.      promotion of democratic principles in third world nations


_____11. In most of the nations of the Middle East, a major long-term economic concern

               will be the need for

a.       unskilled labor   b. imported oil    c. diversified industry    d. herds of camels


The statements below refer to changes in Afghanistan in the 1990’s.

• The Taliban controls the government.
• Women must clothe themselves from head to toe.
• Men are required to grow beards.
• Girls are not allowed to attend school.

_____12. These changes in Afghanistan have resulted from a movement toward

a.       Marxist ideology                           c. constitutional reforms

b.      liberation theology                        d. Islamic fundamentalism


_____13. The actions of most Islamic fundamentalists show that they support

a.       a Zionist movement                      c. traditional Muslim teachings

b.      equal rights for women                 d. a renewed attempt at modernization


_____14. The Middle Eastern leaders Kemal Ataturk, David Ben-Gurion, and Yasir

               Arafat are best known for their support of

a.       nationalism     b. fascism     c. colonialism    d. communism


______15. One similarity in the leadership of Kemal Ataturk, Gamal Nasser, and Shah

                 Reza Pahlavi is that all these leaders

a.       sought to modernize their nations

b.      came to power as a result of democratic elections

c.       encouraged their people to convert to Hinduism

d.      led invasions into Israel


______16. Which type of government did Ayatollah Khomeini establish as a result of the

                   Iranian Revolution in 1979?

a.       constitutional monarchy                            c. democratic republic

b.      fundamentalist Islamic state                     d. radical Marxist regime


_____17. In the 1990’s, the action by the Israeli Government that has most divided Israeli  

               society has been the decision to

a.       grant control of part of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the Palestinians

b.      support the United States—led Allied Coalition during the Persian Gulf War

c.       support the Camp David accords

d.      oppose Islamic fundamentalist rule in Iran


“The time has come for you to go  Live where you like, but not among us...
Get out of our soil, our sea, our wheat, our salt, our wounds.
[Get] out of the memory of our memories  —Mahmoud Darwish, Palestinian poet

_____18. Which concept is supported by the ideas expressed in this passage?

a.       socialism    b. absolutism    c. humanitarianism    d. Nationalism


_____19. The response of the international community to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in

               1990 best illustrates the

a.       lack of cooperation between the major world powers

b.      global acceptance of imperialism

c.       effect of oil on world politics

d.      ineffectiveness of United Nations peacekeeping forces


_____20. In Iran, the Revolution of 1979 and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism resulted


a.       an increase in woman’s rights

b.      the westernization and modernization of the nation

c.       a return to many traditional customs

d.      the introduction of a democratic form of government


• If a son has struck his father, they shall cut off his hand.

• If a seignior has destroyed the eye of a member of the aristocracy, they shall destroy his eye.

• If he has broken another seignior’s bone, they shall break his bone.


21. Which document contains these statements? (Ag'11)

(1) Ten Commandments                               (3) Edicts of Asoka

(2) Code of Hammurabi                 (4) Twelve Tables


22.  The development of which early civilization was influenced most directly by the Tigris River, the Zagros Mountains, and the Syrian Desert? (Ag'11)

(1) Chinese               (2) Maya         (3) Egyptian     (4) Mesopotamian


• Partition of India

• Creation of the State of Israel

• Division of Berlin


23..Which development directly resulted from each of these events? (Aug 11)

(1) Large numbers of people migrated.

(2) Nuclear weapons were developed.

(3) Communist governments were established.

(4) Ethnic tensions decreased.


24. Which historical period is associated with the concept of zero, the development of a handbook on medicine, and the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam? (Aug 11)

(1) European Renaissance                                            (3) Songhai Empire

(2) Golden Age of Islam                                                                (4) Age of Pericles


Base your answers to questions 25 and 26 on the speakers’ statements below

Speaker A: We must fight to keep control of Jerusalem in the hands of those who

believe in Allah.

Speaker B: Come and battle while there is still time to protect the Holy Land where Christ


Speaker C: We must go forth to heal the split between the churches.

Speaker D: An investment in ships and knights will yield control of profitable trade routes.


25 Which speaker expresses a Muslim perspective during the Crusades?(Ag'11)

(1) A               (2) B          (3) C       (4) D


26 Which speaker is expressing an economic motive for the Crusades?(Ag'11)

(1) A               (2) B         (3) C        (4) D


27 Akbar the Great, Suleiman the Magnificent, and Louis XIV are all rulers associated with Ag'11

(1) natural rights       (2) filial piety                 (3) religious toleration       (4) absolutism