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The Progressive Era - Chapter 18

Initiative & voting -Initiative, Referendum and Recall are three powers reserved to the voters to enable them, by petition, to propose or repeal legislation or to remove an elected official from office.

Initiative is a power reserved to the voters to propose legislation, by petition, that would enact, amend or repeal a


Referendum is a power reserved to the voters that allows the voters, by petition, to demand the reconsideration and repeal of any legislative





28 During the Progressive Era, public demands for direct consumer protection resulted in passage of the Jan. ’07

(1) Pure Food and Drug Act

(2) Fair Labor Standards Act

(3) Underwood Tariff

(4) income tax amendment


29 The Federal Reserve System helps to regulate Jan. ’07

(1) the annual federal budget

(2) state sales tax rates

(3) Social Security payments

(4) the nation’s money supply


25 The national income tax, free and unlimited coinage of silver, and the direct election of senators were proposals that were included in the June ’07

 (1) Declaration of Sentiments

(2) Republican plan for Reconstruction

(3) Populist Party platform

(4) Federal Reserve System


24 In his book, How the Other Half Lives, muckraker Jacob Riis exposed the Aug. ’07

a. ruthlessness of the Standard Oil Company

b. social ills of life in New York City’s tenements

c. unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry

d. abuses of the railroad industry


25 What was a major reason most western states granted women suffrage prior to the adoption of the 19th amendment? Aug. ’07

a. Western states had more college-educated women than the eastern states.

b. Women outnumbered men in states west of the Mississippi River.

c. A majority of western states had legislatures controlled by women.

d. The important roles played by frontier women promoted equality.


26 Progressive Era reformers sought to expand voter participation in government by adopting Aug. ’07

a. the initiative and referendum

b. tougher literacy tests

c. additional poll taxes

d. a civil service system



In the early 1900s, the muckrakers provided a service to the American public by June ’08

a. calling for a strong military buildup

b. lobbying for less government regulation of business

c. exposing abuses in government and industry

d. encouraging states to resist federal government authority


Which conclusion about woman’s suffrage is best supported by the information in the chart? June ’08

a. Congress did not allow women to vote in the territories.

b. Before 1917, many of the western states had granted women the right to vote.

c. The United States Supreme Court had to approve a woman’s right to vote in each state.

Women were permitted to vote only in state elections



22 The initiative and referendum are considered democratic reforms because they Aug. ’08

a. permit citizens to have a more direct role in lawmaking

b. let all registered voters select their state’s presidential electors

c. extend the right to vote to 18-year-old citizens

d. allow residents of one state to bring lawsuits against residents of another state


23 During the early 1900s, the term muckrakers was used to describe Aug. ’08

a. pacifists who demonstrated against war

b. writers who exposed the evils in American society

c. newspaper columnists who reported on celebrities

d. politicians who criticized Progressive Era presidents



20 Reformers of the early 20th century frequently attacked political machines because the politicians in these organizations often Jan. ’09

a. denied voting rights to the poor

b. accepted bribes in return for favors

c. wasted money on military spending

d. discriminated against migrant workers



Base your answer to question 21 on the song lyrics below and on your knowledge of social studies. Jan. ’09

The Uprising of the Twenty Thousands(Dedicated to the Waistmakers [shirt makers]

of 1909)

In the black of the winter of nineteen nine,

When we froze and bled on the picket line,

We showed the world that women could fight

And we rose and won with women’s might.


Hail the waistmakers of nineteen nine,

Making their stand on the picket line,

Breaking the power of those who reign,

Pointing the way, smashing the chain.

And we gave new courage to the men

Who carried on in nineteen ten

And shoulder to shoulder we’ll win through,

Led by the I.L.G.W.U.

— Let’s Sing!, Educational Department, International

Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, New York City

21 Which type of labor-related action is best described in this song? Jan. ’09

a. a strike

b. an open shop


22 A major purpose of the Progressive movement (1900–1917) was to Jan. ’09

a. stimulate the economy

b. support government control of factory production

c. encourage immigration from southern and eastern Europe

d. correct the economic and social abuses of industrial society


22 Progressive Era authors such as Jacob Riis and Upton Sinclair are best known for June ’09

a. focusing attention on social conditions

b. fighting for the civil rights of African Americans

c. promoting the interests of the American farmer

d. supporting the goal of woman’s suffrage


23 Which type of federal tax was authorized by the 16th amendment in 1913? June ’09

a. excise (3) income

b. import (4) estate


24 “. . . There’s no chance of progress and reform in an administration in which war plays the principal part. . . .” — President-elect Woodrow Wilson, 1913

In this statement, President-elect Wilson was expressing the belief that June ’09

a. the United States should enter World War I immediately

b. reform movements are strengthened by war

c. the nation will require a change in leadership if it goes to war

d. the Progressive movement would be best served by continued peace


17 Society advances when its fittest members are allowed to assert themselves with the least hindrance. The idea expressed in this statement is most consistent with the Aug. ’09

a. principles of Social Darwinism

b. concept of assimilation

c. goals of the Progressive movement

d. melting pot theory of American culture


20 Yellow journalists created support for the Spanish-American War by writing articles about The Aug. ’09

a. political popularity of William Jennings Bryan

b. efforts of the United States to control Mexico

c. destruction of United States sugar plantations by Hawaiians

d. sinking of the United States battleship Maine in Havana Harbor


21 Muckrakers Ida Tarbell and Upton Sinclair influenced the federal government to Aug. ’09

a. grant citizenship to people who had entered the country illegally

b. pass legislation to correct harmful business practices

c. force individual states to regulate monopolies

d. end racial discrimination in the workplace


Base your answers to questions 22 and 23 on the speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge ofsocial studies.

Speaker A: Nature should be left as it is found. All unsettled land should be off limits to future settlement or development.

Speaker B: Natural resources should be controlled by big business to ensure the economic strength of the United States. Our abundance of land gives us a great advantage for competing in world markets.

Speaker C: The natural resources of the United States should be used wisely. We must  conserve them for future generations while also using them to serve the people of today.

Speaker D: No man or institution owns the land. It is to be shared by everyone and everything in the best interest of all who depend upon its offerings.


22 Which speaker best expresses the environmental views of President Theodore Roosevelt? Aug. ’09

a. A (3) C

b. B (4) D


23 The statement of Speaker D is most like views expressed by Aug. ’09

a.       Native American Indians

b.       western farmers

c.       railroad companies

d.       European immigrants


June ’10

20 Which government action is most closely associated with the efforts of muckrakers? June ’10

a. ratification of the woman’s suffrage amendment

b. approval of the graduated income tax

c. creation of the National Forest Service

d. passage of the Meat Inspection Act


21 In the early 1900s, Progressive Era reformers sought to increase citizen participation in government by supporting the June ’10

a. expansion of the spoils system

b. direct election of senators

c. creation of the electoral college

d. formation of the Federal Reserve system


22 The cartoon illustrates the actions of President Theodore Roosevelt in  June ’10

(1) securing the land to build the Panama Canal

(2) leading troops in the Spanish-American War

(3) ending the war between Russia and Japan

(4) improving diplomatic relations with Latin American nations


23 Critics of the actions shown in this cartoon claimed President Theodore Roosevelt was June ’10

(1) causing environmental damage (3) following a policy of imperialism

(2) requiring massive tax increases (4) producing major trade deficits with China



21 Jacob Riis, Ida Tarbell, and Margaret Sanger are best known for their efforts to Aug. ’10

a. create awareness about social problems

b. gain support for the women’s movement

c. expand the rights of Native American Indians

d. win equal treatment for African Americans


22 The Progressive movement supported the idea that the federal government should Aug. ’10

a. regulate big business

b. reduce immigration

c. build an overseas empire

d. reduce the number of farms