Sectionalism & Slavery
slavery into the new territories raised the constitutional issue of "federalism," the balance of power
between the federal and state governments.
- In the early 1800s, with the abundance of water power, the North developed an economy
increasingly based on manufacturing, while the South continued to rely on an economy based on
- The plantations of the South relied on slave labor.
There were many issues over the status of slavery, both in the territories and the states.
Abolitionists (John Brown, Frederick Douglas, William Lloyd Garrison, Harriett
Beecher Stowe, Harriett Tubman)
The publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, contributed to the start of the Civil War, by
intensifying Northern dislike of slavery.
rebellion by the slaves.
The Underground Railroad - Harriett Tubman
In the 1850s, many runaway slaves went to Canada because he Fugitive Slave Act kept them at risk in the United States.
The Missouri Compromise
In 1818 Missouri became a state. The settlers from Missouri wanted it to be a slave state. The Congressmen from the North did not want another slave state. That same year Maine also asked to be admitted to the Union.
In 1820 an agreement called the Missouri Compromise was reached. The compromise allowed Missouri to come into the Union as a slave state and Maine would be a free state.
Congress drew an imaginary line across the middle of the United States running from the east coast to the Pacific Ocean. This imaginary line separated the states into free and slave states. Any new state entering the Union that was south of the line would be a slave state. Any state north of the line would enter the Union as a free state.
Maine became a state in 1820. Missouri became a state in 1821. For the next 15 years no states entered the Union. From 1836 to 1850 six states were admitted:
States admitted to the Union between 1836 - 1848
the admission of new slave states.
The Compromise of 1850
In 1850 California asked to be admitted to the Union. The Missouri Compromise had cut California in half. Congressmen argued over whether California should enter the war as a free or slave state.
Henry Clay, the man who worked out the Missouri Compromise, came out of retirement to try to work out another compromise. The new agreement was called the Compromise of 1850. In this compromise Northern California entered the Union as a free state.
The Compromise of 1850 added some new laws. Buying and selling slaves in Washington, D.C. was outlawed. The people living in Washington, D.C. could still own slaves, but could not buy or sell new ones. In the South the land received from Mexico was broken up into two states, New Mexico and Utah. In these states the settlers could decide for themselves whether they wanted slavery or not.
The South got a new law called the Fugitive Slave Law which said that any slaves escaping from the south to freedom in the north should be returned to their masters. Bounty hunters received a bounty for each slave they returned. Some free black people were captured by bounty hunters and sold as slaves. Any person who did not help a bounty hunter could be punished under the law.
In the 1850s, the phrase “Bleeding Kansas” was used to describe clashes between
proslavery and antislavery groups
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
because it ruled that Congress could not ban slavery in the territories.
would grant citizenship to formerly enslaved persons
“Compromise Enables Maine and Missouri to Enter the Union”
“California Joins the Union As Part of Compromise of 1850”
“Kansas-Nebraska Act Establishes Popular Sovereignty in the Territories”
Which issue is most closely associated with these headlines? (#15-Aug 10)
(1) status of slavery in new states
(2) negotiation of the Oregon Treaty
(3) expansion of land for reservations
(4) influence of political parties on economic development
14 Most Southern political leaders praised the Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) because it (Ju10)
(1) granted citizenship to all enslaved persons
(2) upheld the principle of popular sovereignty
(3) supported the right of a state to secede from the Union
(4) protected the property rights of slave owners in the territories
12 The Supreme Court ruling in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) helped to increase sectional conflict because the decision (#12-Jan. ’10)
a. denied Congress the power to regulate slavery in the territories
b. allowed for the importation of enslaved persons for ten years
c. prohibited slavery in lands west of the Mississippi River
d. gave full citizenship to all enslaved persons
Slave state counter over time
Base your answer to question 13 on the poster below
13 Prior to the Civil War, abolitionists reacted to the situation described in the poster by (#13 - Aug. ’09)
a. supporting the Underground Railroad
b. opposing the Emancipation Proclamation
c. banning freed slaves from Northern states
d. proposing a stricter fugitive slave law
14 The publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, contributed to the start of the Civil War by (#14-Jan. ’09)
a. exposing the dangers of cotton manufacturing
b. intensifying Northern dislike of slavery
c. pressuring the president to support emancipation
d. convincing Congress to ban the importation of slaves
15 In the 1850s, the phrase “Bleeding Kansas” was used to describe clashes between (#15-June ’09)
a. proslavery and antislavery groups
b. Spanish landowners and new American settlers
c. Chinese and Irish railroad workers
d. Native American Indians and white settlers
16 In the 1850s, why did many runaway slaves go to Canada? (#16-June ’09)
a. They feared being drafted into the Northern army.
b. The Fugitive Slave Act kept them at risk in the United States.
c. More factory jobs were available in Canada.
d. Northern abolitionists refused to help fugitive slaves.
12 Abolitionists in the pre–Civil War period were most likely to support the (#12-Aug. ’08)
a. removal of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia
b. passage of the Fugitive Slave Act
c. activities of the Underground Railroad
d. use of popular sovereignty in the territories
13 Which Supreme Court decision created the need for a constitutional amendment that would grant citizenship to formerly enslaved persons? (#13-Aug. ’08)
a. Marbury v. Madison
b. McCulloch v. Maryland
c. Worcester v. Georgia
d. Dred Scott v. Sanford
11 Which term refers to the idea that settlers had the right to decide whether slavery would be legal in their territory? (#11-June ’08)
c. popular sovereignty
d. southern secession
12 The Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) was significant because it (#12-June ’08)
(1) allowed slavery in California
(2) outlawed slavery in the Southern States
(3) upheld the actions of the Underground Railroad
(4) ruled that Congress could not ban slavery in the territories
15 What was a major reason that slavery expanded in the South in the first half of the 1800s? June ’07
a. Federal government regulations favored Southern exports.
b. New inventions led to an increase in cotton production.
c. Most early textile mills were built in theSouth.
d. The federal government encouraged theimportation of enslaved persons.
11 In the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, popular sovereignty was
proposed as a way to (Au06)
(1) allow northern states the power to ban slavery
(2) deny southern states the legal right to own slaves
(3) allow settlers in new territories to vote on the issue of slavery
(4) overturn previous Supreme Court decisions on slavery a stricter fugitive slave law
13 From 1820 to 1865, the debates over nullification, protective tariffs, and the spread of slavery into the new territories concerned the constitutional issue of the (Au05)
(1) balance of power between the federal and state governments
(2) balance between the rights of individuals and the need to maintain order
(3) protection of the rights of ethnic and racial groups
(4) separation of power between the executive and legislative branches
15 During the 1840s, abolitionists opposed annexation of new western territory because they (Ju05)
(1) feared the admission of new slave states
(2) wanted to limit the power of the national government
(3) were concerned with the legal rights of Native American Indians
(4) supported an isolationist foreign policy
15 The Missouri Compromise (1820), the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act
(1854) were all efforts to (Ja05)
(1) end fighting between midwestern farmers and Native American Indians
(2) encourage manufacturing in the West
(3) increase the number of people who voted in presidential elections
(4) settle disputes over the spread of slavery to the western territories
4 What was the primary reason that slavery became more widespread in the South than in the North? (Ju08)
(1) The abolitionist movement was based in the North.
(2) The textile industry was controlled by southern merchants.
(3) Opposition to slavery by the Anglican Church was stronger in the North.
(4) Geographic factors contributed to the growth of the southern plantation system.
Base your answers to questions 14 and 15 on the map below
14 The map illustrates the impact on the United States of the (Ju11)
(1) Great Compromise (3) Dred Scott decision
(2) Missouri Compromise (4) Emancipation Proclamation
15 Information on the map supports the conclusion that congressional leaders in 1820 and 1821 wanted to (Ju11)
(1) maintain an equal number of free and slave states
(2) ban slavery west of the Mississippi River
(3) bring slavery to the Oregon Country
(4) open territories in the North to slavery
11 Which statement about the Missouri Compromise (1820) is most accurate? (Ja10)
(1) Slavery was banned west of the Mississippi River.
(2) Unorganized territories would be governed by the United States and Great Britain.
(3) The balance between free and slave states was maintained.
(4) The 36°30' line formed a new boundary between the United States and Canada
11 The climate and topography of the southeastern United States had a major impact on the history of the United States before 1860 because the region (Au08)
(1) became the center of commerce and Manufacturing
(2) developed as the largest domestic source of steel production
(3) was the area in which most immigrants chose to settle
(4) provided agricultural products that were processed in the North and in Europe
14 Prior to 1850, what was a main reason the North developed an economy increasingly based on manufacturing while the South continued to rely on an economy based on agriculture? (Ja07)
(1) Protective tariffs applied only to northern seaports.
(2) Geographic conditions supported different types of economic activity.
(3) Slavery in the North promoted rapid economic growth.
(4) Manufacturers failed to make a profit in the South.
14 Both the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise of 1850 settled conflicts between the North and the South over (Au 03)
(1) admission of states to the Union
(2) Supreme Court decisions
(3) presidential election results
(4) voting rights
15 What was a major reason that slavery expanded in the South in the first half of the 1800s? (Ju07)
(1) Federal government regulations favored Southern exports.
(2) New inventions led to an increase in cotton production.
(3) Most early textile mills were built in the South.
(4) The federal government encouraged the importation of enslaved persons
12 Most tariffs in the 19th century were intended to (Au07)
(1) allow access to cheap foreign imports
(2) raise revenue and protect domestic manufacturing
(3) redistribute wealth among the social classes
(4) limit American exports
15 In the early 1800s, which factor was most important in the development of Northern manufacturing centers? (Ja11)
(1) abundance of water power
(2) availability of slave labor in the North
(3) development of gold mines
(4) access to passes through the Appalachian Mountains
Base your answer to question 10 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
10 The election results shown on this map most clearly reflect the influence of (Au 03)
(1) nationalist motives (3) political stability
(2) sectional differences (4) ethnic conflicts
10 One way that “Bleeding Kansas,” the Dred Scott decision, and John Brown’s raid on
Harper’s Ferry had a similar effect on the United States was that these events (Jan 04)
a. ended conflict over slavery in the territories
b. eased tensions between the North and the South
c. contributed to the formation of the Whig Party
d. made sectional compromise more difficult
11 Which statement about the Missouri Compromise (1820) is most accurate? Aug. ’09
a. Slavery was banned west of the Mississippi River.
b. Unorganized territories would be governed by the United States and Great Britain.
c. The balance between free and slave states was maintained.
d. The 36°30' line formed a new boundary between the United States and Canada.
15 Passage of the Homestead Act and of legislation supporting the construction of transcontinental railroads demonstrated the federal government’s commitment to Jan. ’08
a. limits on big business
b. conservation of natural resources
12 Most tariffs in the 19th century were intended to Aug. ’07
a. allow access to cheap foreign imports
b. raise revenue and protect domestic manufacturing
c. redistribute wealth among the social classes
d. tansport farm goods to market
11 The climate and topography of the southeastern United States had a major impact on the history of the United States before 1860 because the region Aug. ’08
a. became the center of commerce and manufacturing
b. developed as the largest domestic source of steel production
c. was the area in which most immigrants chose to settle
d. provided agricultural products that were processed in the North and in Europe
7 One way in which the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798) and the South Carolina
Ordinance of Nullification (1832) are similar is that each Jan. ’10
a. claimed that individual states have the right to interpret federal laws
b. formed part of the unwritten constitution
c. supported the federal government’s power to declare war
d. provided a way for new states to enter the Union