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Look at the map below and study the various geographic features.

What are the regional differences between the colonies?

Geography& New England

  • Good natural harbors

  • Farming in New England -The growing season was short, and the

            soil in many places was rocky.

  • Subsistence farming- they produced just enough food for families

  • The Atlantic Coast and Fishing - the world’s best whaling and

            fishing grounds

  • New England’s forests provided materials for shipbuilding

  • New England was exporting timber,

  • Merchants grew rich from trade.
  • Diverse economies

  • wealth was more evenly distributed.

  • the north had smaller farms and
  • larger, more numerous towns.

Geography & the Middle Colonies
  • The Middle Colonies enjoyed a longer growing


  • Rich soil to  grow cash crops (crops to be sold) -

              fruits, vegetables, and  grain.

  • Good natural harbors
  • Numerous rivers

Geography & the South
  • The Southern Colonies


    • Plantations


    • Long growing season


    • Less diverse


    • Based on cash crops such as tobacco, rice, indigo and

                in the 1800's  - cotton.


    • Wealth from these crops was concentrated in the hands  

               of  landowners.


    • Self-sufficient plantations.



    The Expansion of the United States

    1 What is the best title for this map? (Jan ’12)

    (1) Eastward Migration                        (3) Territorial Expansion

    (2) Results of the Revolution            (4) Immigration Before the Civil War


    2 Which geographic feature formed the western border of the United States in 1783? (Jan ’12)

    (1) Pacific Ocean                                 (3) Great Lakes

    (2) Mississippi River                          (4) Rocky Mountains


    Maps of the United States
     Physical Maps
    • What observations can you make about the topography of the United States based on the physical map above?
    • What does a physical map show?
    • What do the basic colors on the the physical map above represent? 


    Population Density Map

    • What connections can you make between population density and geography?
    • Where are the major population centers in the country located?
    • What is the relationship between population centers and politics?  Why?
    • Why would this map be important for someone running a presidential campaign?
    How would answer the following questions:
    • What cities can you name in each state?
    • Which cities in the U.S. are the most populated?
    • Where are the major cities located?
    • How has the location of these cities affected the historic development of the city?

    Which city is correctly paired with the geographic feature that most directly affected its growth? (Ja11 - # 3)

    (1) New Orleans — Pacific Ocean

    (2) New York City — Chesapeake Bay

    (3) Chicago — Great Lakes

    (4) Los Angeles — Appalachian Mountains


    Lumber, dried fish, and rum were mainly products of the

    (1) New England states      (3) southern states

    (2) middle Atlantic states    (4) Northwest Territory


    The main reason for the variety of products in the different regions of

    the country was the differences in

    (1) family structure and education

    (2) geography and climate

    (3) political and social systems

    (4) national origins and cultures


    Climate map of the U.S.

    The Mississippi River
      • Farmers in the Ohio River valley gained the greatest economic benefit  when the United States acquired the Louisiana Territory


      • Since the late 1700s, the Mississippi River has been a vital waterway because it provided farmers and merchants an outlet to the Gulf of  Mexico


      • The Mississippi River was the boundary  line between the United States and French Louisiana in 1803? 


      • Acquiring New Orleans as part of the Louisiana Purchase was  considered important to the development of the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys because the city served as a port for American agricultural goods


       Which geographic features can you name on the map below?

    1. From west to east, the major geographic features of the United States are the

            (1) Rocky Mountains → Great Plains → Mississippi River → Appalachian Mountains

    (2) Great Plains → Mississippi River → Rocky Mountains → Appalachian Mountains


    (3) Rocky Mountains → Great  Plains → Appalachian Mountains →  Mississippi River


    (4) Mississippi River → Appalachian Mountains → Great Plains → Rocky Mountains



    2. Which conclusion is most clearly supported by the information on the graph?

    1. The colonial population showed the greatest rate of increase during the 1600s.

    2. The colonial population showed continual growth from 1620 to 1780.

    3. The French and Indian War (1754–1763) caused the colonial population to decrease.

    4. By the start of the Revolutionary War in 1775, the colonial population had reached three million

    Practice Regents Questions on Geography


    3.  During the colonial period, goods were most commonly transported on (#1-Au11)

    (1) rivers               (2) canals            (3) railroads        (4) turnpikes


    4. Primary sources of information about the colonial era would include a (#1-Ju11)

    (1) journal entry by a member of the Second Continental Congress

    (2) textbook passage about the settlement of Pennsylvania

    (3) recent newspaper article commemorating the birth of Patrick Henry

    (4) television program about the Declaration of Independence


    5. Which geographic area was added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase? (#2-Ju11)

    (1) Appalachian Mountains

    (2) Columbia River valley

    (3) Great Plains

    (4) Piedmont Plateau


    Based on the rankings on the census chart, the most populous state in 1900 and 1950 was (Ja11)

    6. The most populous state in 1900 and 1950 was: (Ja11)

    (1) California      (2) Illinois              (3) Massachusetts       (4) New York


    7. Based on the ranking from the 2000 census, which pair of states had the greatest number of electors in the 2008 presidential election? (Ja11)

    (1) Florida and California

    (2) Iowa and Indiana

    (3) Pennsylvania and Virginia

    (4) California and Texas

    8. The presence of which pair of geographic conditions discouraged the development of a plantation economy in the New England

         colonies? (Au10)

    (1) wide coastal plain and absence of good harbors

    (2) rocky soil and short growing season

    (3) numerous rivers and humid climate

    (4) flatlands and lack of forests


    9. This map shows the western limit on colonial settlement that resulted from the (#1 -Ju10)

    (1) founding of Jamestown

    (2) Proclamation of 1763

    (3) Monroe Doctrine

    (4) Compromise of 1850


    10.  Climatic conditions in the southern colonies most directly influenced the development of (#2-Ju10)

    (1) democratic institutions

    (2) a canal system

    (3) the plantation system

    (4) the coal industry


    11. In which area did good harbors, abundant forests, rocky soil, and a short growing season most influence the colonial economy? (#1-Ja10)

    (1) Southern colonies

    (2) Middle Atlantic region

    (3) Northwest Territory

    (4) New England colonies


    12. Farmers in the Ohio River valley gained the greatest economic benefit when the United States acquired the (#1-Au09)

    (1) Oregon Territory

    (2) Gadsden Purchase

    (3) Louisiana Territory

    (4) Mexican Cession


    13. Since the late 1700s, the Mississippi River has been a vital waterway because it (#1-Ju09)

    (1) divided the northern territories from the southern territories

    (2) allowed American farmers direct access to Canadian markets

    (3) connected the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean

    (4) provided farmers and merchants an outlet to the Gulf of Mexico


    14. During the first half of the 1800s, geographic factors influenced the economy of New England by (#2-Ju09)


    (1) encouraging the establishment of large plantations

    (2) promoting the growth of trade and manufacturing

    (3) increasing the region’s reliance on slave labor

    (4) supporting rice and indigo farming

    Base your answers to questions 15 and 16 on the map below


    15.  What would be the best title for this map? (#1 - Ja09)

    (1) British North America Before 1850

    (2) United States Territorial Expansion

    (3) Colonial North America

    (4) Wartime Land Acquisitions


    16.  The Louisiana Purchase was important to the United States because it (#2-Ja09)

    (1) expanded the nation’s boundary to the Pacific Ocean

    (2) removed the Spanish from North America

    (3) closed the western territories to slavery

    (4) secured control of the Mississippi River


    Base your answers to questions 17 and 18 on the map below


    17.  Which geographic feature most limited the westward movement of American colonists before 1750? (#1-Au08)

    (1) H                 (2) I              (3) C                     (4) F


    18. At the end of the Revolutionary War, which geographic feature became the western boundary of the United States? (#2-Au08)

    (1) A               (2) B               (3) E                   (4) G


    19.Which geographic factor most helped the United States maintain its foreign policy of neutrality during much of the 1800s? (#1-Ju08)

    (1) climate of the Great Plains

    (2) oceans on its east and west coasts

    (3) large network of navigable rivers

    (4) mountain ranges near the Atlantic and Pacific coasts


    20. The relatively flat, grassy region of the United States between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains is known as the (#2-Ja08)

    (1) Great Plains                                                       (3) Coastal Plain

    (2) Great Basin                                                        (4) Piedmont


    Base your answer to question 21 on the map below


    21. The states with the largest percentage of land used for agriculture are located in areas with (#1 - Au07)

    (1) relatively flat terrain                                   (3) easy access to the West Coast

    (2) the warmest year-round climate              (4) ocean ports



      Base your answers to question 22  on the map below



    22.  Which geographic feature was the boundary line between the United States and French Louisiana in 1803? (#1Ja07)

    (1) Appalachian Mountains                         (3) Mississippi River

    (2) Great Lakes                                              (4) Rocky Mountains


    Base your answer to question 23 on the map below


    23 A conclusion supported by the information on the map is that slavery in the American colonies was (#1-Au06)

    (1) declining by the start of the Revolutionary War

    (2) concentrated in areas suitable for large plantations

    (3) becoming illegal in the northern colonies

    (4) growing fastest in the New England colonies


    24. Acquiring New Orleans as part of the Louisiana Purchase was considered important to the development of the Mississippi and Ohio

           River valleys because the city (#1-Ju06)

    (1) provided protection from attacks by the Spanish

    (2) provided migrant workers for river valley farms

    (3) served as a port for American agricultural goods

    (4) served as the cultural center for the nation


    • Jamestown, founded in 1607

    • Plymouth colony, founded in 1620

    • New Amsterdam, founded in 1625

    25. These early colonial settlements were similar in that each was located (#1-Ja06)

    (1) at the base of a mountain range

    (2) near the coastline

    (3) in an arid climate

    (4) on offshore islands


    Base your answer to question 26 on the series of maps below and on your knowledge of social studies.



    26.What is the best title for this series of maps? (#1-Ju05)

    (1) Industrialization of the United States

    (2) Sectional Conflicts in the United States

    (3) Transportation Revolution in the United States

    (4) Shifting Frontier of the United States

     27. Because of fertile land and a long growing season, plantations in the thirteen colonies developed in (#1-Ja05)

    (1) New England

    (2) the Middle Atlantic region

    (3) the South

    (4) the upper Mississippi River valley


    28. In the 1800s, the Great Plains region of the United States was characterized primarily by  (#1-Au 03)

    (1) exceptionally high amounts of annual rainfall

    (2) heavily wooded forests covering most of the area

    (3) an extensive system of navigable rivers

    (4) vast expanses of native grasses


    29. Which type of map shows the most detailed information about Earth’s natural features, such

    as rivers, lakes, and mountain ranges? (#1Ju 03)


    (1) political                 (3) weather

    (2) demographic        (4) physical

    30. Which geographic factor most directly influenced the location of the first English

                  settlements in  North America?(Jan. ’13)

    (a) rivers along the Atlantic coast                 (c) mild climate along the Gulf coast

    (b) availability of flat land in the Midwest       (d) forests throughout the Middle Colonies


    31. The original settlements in the thirteen British colonies were all located Aug. ’12

    (a) east of the Appalachian Mountains           (c) on the Great Plains

    (b) along the Gulf Coast                                  (d) west of the Mississippi River


    32.  Which geographic feature was used to establish the Proclamation Line of 1763?June ’12

    (a) Great Lakes    (b) Rocky Mountains     (c) Appalachian Mountains  (d) Mississippi River