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Government 12th Grade
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Federal Government 10

 

 

Section 1:   Bureaucratic Organization

 

Section 2:   The Civil Service System

 

Section 3:   The Bureaucracy at Work

 

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Section 1:   Bureaucratic Organization

 

  • bureaucrat

 

  • embassy

 

  • government corporation

 

The Cabinet Departments

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT CIVILIAN EMPLOYMENT  

 

SOURCE: 2011 Annual Survey of Public Employment and Payroll. For information on sampling and

nonsampling errors and definitions, see http://www.census.gov/govs/apes/how_data_collected.html.

U.S. Census Bureau

 

 

Total

Total

                                                                     

            March

Function

Employees

Employees

Payroll

TOTAL - ALL FUNCTIONS

2,854,251

2,619,051

16,118,609,850

Financial Administration

128,116

123,025

773,858,367

Other Government Administration

25,479

24,538

158,254,123

Judicial and Legal

64,348

61,527

437,472,607

Police

188,642

174,807

1,179,186,734

Correction

38,311

38,148

222,553,537

Highways

2,973

2,884

23,277,165

Air Transportation

48,348

48,060

438,020,093

Water Transport & Terminals

5,041

4,776

13,444,866

Public Welfare

9,296

9,058

76,007,153

Health

163,096

152,347

1,202,899,814

Hospitals

208,763

190,987

1,431,482,910

Social Insurance Administration

70,754

68,670

425,870,711

Parks and Recreation

27,339

24,825

145,546,378

Housing and Community Development

15,269

15,059

111,964,330

Natural Resources

188,233

179,179

1,127,444,644

Nat Defense/International Relations

805,709

779,290

3,019,831,653

Postal Service

632,471

516,678

3,628,409,770

Space Research & Technology

18,727

18,501

176,637,041

Other Education*

10,519

10,026

74,892,119

Libraries

3,871

3,710

23,434,082

Other and Unallocable

198,946

172,956

1,428,121,753

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

was formed in 2003. Below we provide detail

for the largest agencies within the DHS.

U.S. Coast Guard

8,310

8,181

53,560,923

U.S. Secret Service

6,967

6,828

51,306,520

Bureau of Customs and Border Protection

58,355

58,002

363,227,438

Federal Emergency Management Agency

17,524

7,643

101,060,946

Transportation Security Agency

62,956

50,227

259,851,137

All Other

38,733

38,195

279,862,707

 

 

  • The federal bureaucracy is made up of hundreds of agencies with staff members called

            bureaucrats or civil servants.

 

  • A secretary who is a member of the president’s cabinet heads each of the departments

            in the executive branch.

 

  • The Department of State is responsible for implementing the foreign policy of the U.S.
  • The State Department staffs embassies, or offices of ambassadors in foreign countries.

 

http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/us_embassies.htm 

 

 

  • The Department of the Treasury manages the monetary resources of the U.S.

 

http://www.moneyfactory.com/home.html

  • The Department of the Interior protects public lands and natural resources and     

             oversees relations with Native Americans.

 

http://www.nps.gov/index.htm

 

 

  • The Department of Agriculture was created to help farmers, develop conservation programs, and provides financial credit to farmers.

 

  • The Department of Justice oversees the nation’s legal affairs.

 

  • The Department of Commerce promotes and protects the industrial and commercial

            segments of the American economy.

 

  • The Department of Defense manages the armed forces of the United States.

 http://www.navycs.com/2013-military-pay-chart.html

 

http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/MILITARY/rg1302.pdf

 

  • The Department of Labor protects American workers, ensures safe working conditions,

            safeguards minimum wage, and protects pension rights.

 

  • The Department of Health and Human Services is concerned with public health and

            social services.

 

  • The Department of Housing and Urban Development ensures Americans of equal

             housing opportunities.

 

  • The Department of Transportation is divided into separate agencies to help it regulate

            all aspects of American transportation needs, policy development, and planning.

 

 

http://www.onlineatlas.us/interstate-highways.htm

 

 

  • The Department of Energy plans energy policy and researches and develops energy

            technology.

 

 

Yucca Mountain: The Making of an Underground Laboratory (2004)

  • The Department of Education coordinates federal assistance programs for public and

            private schools.

 

Use the link below to research the crime statistics for your college town.

 

http://ope.ed.gov/security/GetOneInstitutionData.aspx

  • The Department of Veterans Affairs administers several hospitals for veterans and their

           families.

 

  • The Department of Homeland Security controls the Coast Guard, the Border Patrol, the

            Immigration and Naturalization Service, the Customs Service, and many other agencies.

 

Independent Agencies

 

  • The federal bureaucracy includes more than 100 independent organizations that are not

            part of the cabinet departments.

 

  • Some independent agencies, like the Central Intelligence Agency and the General

            Services Administration, perform services for the executive branch.

https://www.cia.gov/index.html

 

  • Some independent agencies, such as the United States Postal Service, are government

            corporations that serve the public directly

 

Regulatory Commissions

 

  • Independent regulatory commissions were created to make rules for large industries and

            businesses that affect the public.

 

  • Business lobbyists often pressure regulatory agencies.

 

  • In recent years, Congress has responded to complaints of overregulation by trying to 

             deregulate, or reduce the powers of regulatory agencies.

 

  • In most cases, the president and Congress support the idea that competition is good

            for consumers.

 

  • Where natural monopolies exists, it is expected that the government will make sure the

            company does not take advantage of its position and raise prices too high.

 

 

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Section 2:   The Civil Service System

 

  • spoils system

 

  • civil service system

 

Origins

  • Today almost all federal jobs are filled through competitive exams.

https://www.usajobs.gov/ 

 

  • The spoils system—the practice of victorious politicians rewarding their followers with

            government jobs—fostered inefficiency and corruption.

 

  • The civil service system is the principle and practice of government employment on the

            basis of open, competitive exams and merit.

 

The Civil Service Today

 

  • The Office of Personnel Management, along with individual agencies, is responsible for

            filling federal jobs.

 

  • Government jobs are attractive because of their competitive salaries and many benefits.

http://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/pay-leave/salaries-wages/2012/general-schedule/ 

 

  • The Hatch Act limits how involved federal government employees can become in

            elections.

 

Political Appointees in Government

 

  • On taking office, every president has the chance to fill about 2,200 top-level jobs in the

            federal bureaucracy.

 

  • People appointed to non-civil service positions are first and foremost the president’s

            political supporters.

 

  • When the president leaves office, most of the people in these positions return to jobs

            outside the government.

 

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Section 3:   The Bureaucracy at Work

 

http://kids.usa.gov/

 

 

  • liaison officer

 

  • injunction

 

Influencing Policy

 

  • Federal agencies help enforce laws by issuing rules and regulations designed to translate

            the law into action.

 

  • In 1995 a law was enacted to reduce the amount of federal paperwork created by these

            regulations.

 

  • The bureaucracy shapes public policy in several ways:
    • by helping draft new bills for Congress, testifying about legislation, and 

                   providing  lawmakers with technical information,

 

  • by deciding disputes over how a law or set of rules should be applied, and

 

  • by providing top political decision makers with information and advice.

 

Why the Bureaucracy Makes Policy

 

  • There are several reasons the size and importance of the federal bureaucracy has grown

            in size and importance:

 

  • growth in the nation’s population

 

  • international crises

 

  • economic problems at home

 

  • citizens’ demand for action,

 

 

Influencing Bureaucratic Decisions

 

  • Each cabinet department has liaison officers, who help keep track of bills moving

            through Congress that might affect the agency and respond to lawmakers’ requests for

            information.

 

  • The two tools Congress uses most to influence federal agencies are new legislation and

            the budget.

 

  • Federal courts can have an important impact on policy making by issuing an

            injunction—an order that will stop an action or enforce a rule or regulation.